lecture12_June14th

lecture12_June14th - General Overview Sensory memory Short...

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General Overview Sensory memory Short term / working memory Long term memory– linking encoding & retrieval Memory for general knowledge
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Associative strength theory A cue can elicit a memory depending on how frequently the cue and memory have been associated with each other in the past Memory for Word Associations Hammer-nail Sandwich-nail
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Spreading activation Strength of association between a cue and another item can be represented by the semantic distance between the two Associative strength develops depending on the frequency with which the two items are paired 1 st item automatically brings 2 nd item to mind
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But…Encoding specificity Rarely do two events have opportunity to be paired frequently enough to form strong associations Some memories occur only once but are VERY memorable 1 st day of kindergarten 1 st kiss Yet these can be retrieved easily once certain cues are present Visit to kindergarten classroom Smell of perfume or cologne
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Encoding Specificity Principle Recollection performance depends upon the interaction between the properties of the encoded event and the properties of the retrieval information
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Associative strength vs. encoding specificity TEST CUES Weak Strong STUDY Weak cell 1 cell 2 Strong cell 3 cell 4 Which cells would yield the highest memory? ASSOCIATIVE STREGTH: ENCODING SPECIFICITY:
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Context-Dependent Memory Information learned in a particular context is better remembered if recall takes place in the same context as at encoding harder to recall when a different context is present during retrieval
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Godden & Baddeley (1975) Memory capacity of deep-sea divers Deep-sea divers learned words either on land or underwater Later recalled the words either on land or underwater
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Godden & Baddeley (1975) 0 10 20 30 40 50 Land Water Recall Location Percent of Words Recalled Correctly Learned Land Learned Water
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State Dependency Goodwin et al. (1969) Alcohol Study Learning drunk or sober Recalling drunk or sober Results: Best recall when internal states matched!
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Recalling Context Smith (1979): Participants studied words in basement Recalled either in basement, or fifth-floor room Results: Recall better in basement than upper room But: Recall in upper room equal to basement performance when participants tried to recollect original learning environment
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Explicit vs. Implicit Memory Explicit (Declarative) Memory Conscious memory of events and things Implicit (non-declarative) Memory Unconscious memory Performance indicates increased fluency with the item the second time it is presented
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Multiple Memory Systems Amnesic patients Fail on direct (explicit) tests of memory Eg asked to memorize a list of 3 words; after 1 minute delay cannot recite these back to you OK on indirect (implicit) tests of memory Eg Stem completion performance shows near normal performance Memory is assessed without the person being aware that memory is being tested
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lecture12_June14th - General Overview Sensory memory Short...

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