lecture_9_WM

lecture_9_WM - General Overview Sensory memory Short term...

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General Overview Sensory memory Short term memory Working memory Long term memory Memory for general knowledge
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Sternberg (1966; 1967; 1975) Asked how we search the contents of STM in parallel or serially ? Method Subject is given a set of items to remember ranging in size from 2 to 6 (SET SIZE) e.g., 4, 6, 9, 3, 2 Then the subject is asked whether a particular number e.g. “6” , is in the set Subject responds yes or no Design Two types of trials Target is present & target is absent . On present trials, the target appears in each serial position equally often. Searching STM
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Parallel Search Serial Self Terminating Search Serial Exhaustive Search
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Serial Exhaustive Search
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Sternberg search task Major findings 1. RT’s increased linearly with set size 2. Slopes were exactly the same for target present and absent trials Major Conclusions 1. Memory search is serial 2. Memory search is exhaustive
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General Overview Sensory memory Short term memory Working memory Long term memory Memory for general knowledge
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What is Working Memory a mental sketchpad Why do we need it? How can we test it, learn about its properties?
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Baddeley’s Working Memory Model Central Executive Phonological Loop Visuo-Spatial Sketch Pad
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WM model 1. Central Executive attentional controller; supervises and coordinates a number of subsidiary slave systems 2. Slave systems Articulatory (Phonological) loop for speech-based information Visuo-spatial sketch pad
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Components of the Phonological Loop Phonological store can hold speech based information for very brief periods of time (1.5 - 2 seconds) Articulatory control process based on inner speech Can refresh information in the phonological store Can convert written material into phonological code such that it can be registered in the phonological store
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Evidence for the Phonological Loop 1. The phonological similarity effect 1. The unattended (irrelevant) speech effect 1. The word-length effect 4. Articulatory suppression
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1. Phonological Similarity Effect Immediate serial recall is impaired when items to be recalled are similar Similar in what way? Sound e.g., BCDVTP is harder to remember than RKPOSL
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Explanation of the Phonological Similarity Effect effect occurs because the store is based on a phonological code similar sounding items have a similar code harder to recall because codes are more difficult to distinguish from each other
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2. Unattended Speech Effect Immediate serial recall impaired by unattended speech Ps learn a list of visually presented digits Speech is heard in the background English words Nonsense syllables BOTH words and non-sense syllables disrupted later memory performance for the digits Magnitude of ‘interference’ effect similar for English words as for Nonsense syllables – See graph
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lecture_9_WM - General Overview Sensory memory Short term...

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