lecture_6_disorders_of_attention

lecture_6_disorders_of_attention - Selective Attention...

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Unformatted text preview: Selective Attention (General) Automaticity Selective Attention (Visuo-spatial) Disorders of Attention Attention in the real world Automaticity and practice Over time the attentional capacity required for a given task decreases Eg. Typing and talking, simple arithmetic, reading and comprehension of prose passage Automaticity and practice Down side of automatic processing? Increased susceptibility to certain types of interference A STROOP task A series of color bars or color words presented in conflicting colors TASK: name as quickly as possible the ink colour of each item NAME INK COLOUR NAME INK COLOUR BLUE YELLOW RED GREEN PURPLE BLUE BROWN Reading & Automaticity We are literate individuals It is difficult not to read the words this relatively automatic process leads to interference when the task is to not read words but name ink colours Predict performance of Preschool/kindergarten children 2 nd /3 rd grade students High school students Who can perform STROOP task fastest? WHY? Automaticity Schneider & Shiffrin (1977) Asked subjects to search for targets , either letters (M, J, I), or numbers (2, 8, 5) Among an array of other letters or numbers (called frames ) The number of non-target characters ( distractors ) matters little when subjects search for targets of one type (numbers), among an array of distractors of a different type (letters) Automatic vs Controlled Processing Automaticity Schneider & Shiffrin (1977) They varied: Memory set (2 or 4 targets) Frame size (1 to 4 items in the array) Frame display time (20 to 800 ms) Target-distractor mapping (consistent or varied) Automatic vs Controlled Processing in the LAB Schneider and Shiffrin (1977) 41 Consistent Mapping Varied Mapping 42 Automatic vs Controlled processing Automatic Used for easy tasks Does not strain capacity limitations Done in Consistent-Mapping condition Operates in parallel (searching for 1 target is as easy, and as fast as searching for 4) Automatic vs Controlled processing Controlled Used for difficult tasks Requires attention and is capacity limited...
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lecture_6_disorders_of_attention - Selective Attention...

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