lecture2_methods_paradigms

lecture2_methods_paradigms - Outline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5....

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Outline 2. The Death of Behaviorism 3. The Cognitive Revolution 4. Paradigms of Cognitive Psychology 5. Dependent measures
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Ergonomics Optimal designs Any examples?
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Human factors engineering presented new problems During war time: equipment design required knowledge of human cognition Focus: what is the most optimal way to design a machine for human use E.g., pilots landing airplanes E.g., vigilance while monitoring the radar screen The “Cognitive Revolution”
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Communications engineering provided new concepts Exchange of information through channels (telegraph writers, phone lines) People as limited capacity processors of information The “Cognitive Revolution”
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Development of computers and artificial intelligence gave a dominant metaphor The computer metaphor: The comparison of people’s cognitive activities to an operating computer People seen as composed of input, processing, storage and output devices. The “Cognitive Revolution”
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The “Cognitive Revolution” Marked by 2 influential books: Broadbent’s Perception and Communication, 1958 Neisser’s Cognitive Psychology, 1967
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The “Cognitive Revolution” researchers started to see that they were asking common questions: how is information acquired, processed, stored, and transmitted how information is represented
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Outline 2. The Death of Behaviorism 3. The Cognitive Revolution 4. Paradigms of Cognitive Psychology 5. Dependent measures
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Information Processing The emphasis here is on: information FLOW through the organism nature of the representations nature of the processes that operate on these representations It is notable also for what it neglects--”attention” a core area of research in cognitive psychology
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Figure 1-4 (p. 29) A typical information-processing model.
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Retinal Image Processing More Processing Consciousness Storage Neisser, 1976 Still more Processing
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Connectionism Representational assumption simple neuron-like elements code patterns of activation across a large population of such elements Neural networks these units are connected by weights that are modifiable by learning Positively weighted lead to activation Negatively weighted lead to inhibition Items (e.g., a letter, a word, a meaning) are represented by a pattern of activation
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Fly, fly little wing Fly beyond imagining The softest cloud, the whitest dove Upon the wind of heaven's love Past the planets and the stars
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2010 for the course PSYCH 207 taught by Professor Lodson during the Spring '05 term at Waterloo.

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lecture2_methods_paradigms - Outline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5....

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