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Bio 1201 Chapter 17 -

Bio 1201 Chapter 17 - - Chapter 17 I DNA is the...

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Chapter 17 I. DNA is the instructions (programs) that tells the cell what to do A. Proteins are the results of those instructions. Proteins are actually doing the jobs B. The study of metabolic defects provided evidence that genes lead to proteins C. Archibald Garrod first proposed this relationship in 1909 1. Suggested that genes dictated phenotypes via enzymes 2. Inherited disease were the result of the lack of an enzyme II. Suggestions of Garrod were confirmed in the 1930s by Beadle and Tatum => Wild-type yeast could survive on a minimal medium. The mutants were auxotrophs (can’t survive on a minimal medium) that required added nutrients A. Auxotrophs – nutritional mutants that can only be grown when supplied with nutrients not required by the wild-type B. From these results they formulated the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis C. This has been modified to the one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis because: 1. Not all proteins are enzymes 2. Many enzymes are comprised of 2 polypeptide subunits **When you mix 14N then move to 15N the band positions after two generations = all of the DNA starts as 14N then half turns into 14N and other half turns into 15N therefore the bands are close together on the higher part of the tube III. DNA => RNA => Proteins A. Step 1: DNA to RNA 1. This process is called transcription – copying genetic information into another form 2. Transcription is the synthesis of RNA using DNA as a template - promoter – beginning of strain - In RNA, there’s no T --- T is replaced by U - DNA has 2 strains, but each type of gene is only on one of the strain 3. The RNA is complementary to the DNA
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