Bio 1201 Chapter 12 -

Bio 1201 Chapter 12 - - Chapter 12 THE CELL CYCLE A cell...

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Chapter 12 THE CELL CYCLE A cell contain 12 replicated chromosomes at the beginning of mitosis will have how many chromosomes after the completion of mitosis? - 24 – cell did not split Cell Division Growth Renewal and repair Reproduction Single cell organism – divide = reproduction I. Cell division functions in reproduction, growth, and tissue renewal (see fig. 12.2) A. Cell division – process in which the genome of a cell is faithfully passed along to the next generation of cells B. Genome – total endowment of genetic material unique to each species (genetic materials) C. Cell Division Requirements: 1. Replication of DNA 2. Equal distribution of DNA to opposite ends of the dividing cell 3. Separation into two daughter cells Have to replicate first The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle - 12.1.1 Somatic cells are diploid (2 sets of chromosomes – a set from each parent) Every organism have its own number of chromosomes o Human – 46 Sexual reproduction – gametes o Each have a single set of chromosomes o Sperms , eggs = haploid o Sperm + eggs = diploid I. The genome of a eukaryotic cell is organized into multiple chromosomes (see fig. 12.3) A. Chromosomes – made of chromatin – composed of long DNA molecules, and proteins in the eukaryotic cells 1. Chromatin is the aggregate mass of dispersed genetic material formed of DNA and proteins B. Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in the somatic cells. C. Gametes (Reproductive cells) contain half the number of chromosomes of somatic cells. D. The chromosome is made up of chromatin Chromatin packed together in its most condensed form - into a structure that’s easier to move o When DNA is packed – cannot interact with the genes o Pack down only to move it, then separate Composed of long DNA molecule, and proteins in eukaryotic cells A structure o Can have different structure ( linear –have not replicate or and X structure - replicate) Chromatin – There’s proteins in chromosomes E. Somatic cells – are cells that makeup the body of the organisms; usually diploid (cells that made up our body) F. Gametes – (sex cells or germ cells) – are the cells that take part in sexual reproduction haploid G. Diploid is the condition where cells have two sets of chromosomes; usually each set is derived from a different parent H. Haploid – is the condition where cells have only one set of chromosomes II. Mitosis alternates with interphase during the cell cycle. A. Cell cycle (see fig. 12.5)
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Bio 1201 Chapter 12 - - Chapter 12 THE CELL CYCLE A cell...

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