Africa - - GEOG 1003 Rwandan Genocide 1 The movie Hotel...

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GEOG 1003 Rwandan Genocide 1. The movie Hotel Rwanda is not a work of fiction 2. It is based on real events: on a genocide that killed at least 800,000 people over the course of only 100 days 3. From watching the film, we know that conflict between the Hutu and Tutsi ethnic groups contributed to the massacre, but what were the origins of these tensions? Rwandan Genocide-Historical Factors 1. Colonial rule a. Early German involvement ended after WWI i. Did little b. Belgians took control after Germans lost war and Tutsis were in power i. More direct than Germans, especially in education ii. Tutsi took over lower class Tutsis and Hutus c. 1933: ID cards were issued d. Hutus were excluded from educational and leadership opportunities i. Catholic Church reinforced the divisions? ii. Most educated came from upper Tutsis class e. 1950s: U.N. began to call for more Hutu involvement f. Late 1950s: Hutu opposition became militarized i. Pan-African movement g. 1960, 1961: democratic elections were allowed/held and Hutus were elected, Tutsis monarchy abolished h. 1962: Belgian grants independence Post-Independence 1. After independence, Rwanda was a republic by Parmehutu 2. Tutsi guerrilla groups began to stage attacks 3. In 1986, Tutsi-dominated Rwandan Patriotic Front (RFF) formed 4. 1990 – Rwandan Civil War a. Between government and RFF b. Masacres began to occur 5. Signing of Arusha Accords 6. Fighting continued unabated 7. 1994: Assassination of Rwandan president began downward spiral into genocide a. Most Tutsis killed, moderate sympathizers killed b. Almost 3 million killed? General Romeo Dallaire 1. Was formerly a Canadian military commander 2. Served as Force Commander for UNAMIR from 1993-1994 3. As the situation in Rwanda unraveled, he begged the U.N. Security Council to send more troops 4. They refused, partly due to U.S. opposition 5. Left with only 260 troops he attempted to defend areas where he knew Tutsis were hiding 6. Credited with singlehandedly saving 20,000 Tutsis and Hutus
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GEOG 1003 a. Focused on areas where Tutsis/Hutus were hiding? 7. Since then, advocate for awareness in Rwanda 8. Suffered from PTDS disorder 9. Sub Saharan Africa Africa is NOT a country 19 th century – was unknown 1. European Maps 2. “The Dark Continent” 3. Henry M. Stanley – “Through the Dark Continent” famous for the search of Davis Livingston and the exploration of Africa a. Wrote a book about his advanture 4. 800 million people in 48 states and one territory Setting the Boundaries 1. 800 million people 2. Africa south of the Sahara Desert a. 43 mainland states plus island nations and the French territory of Reunion 3. Similar livelihood system 4. Shared colonial experience 5. Structure adjustment programs Gondwanaland ) Often called plateau Continent 1. Ancient mega continent a. South Africa, South American, Antarctica, Australia, Madagascar, and Saudi Arabia 2. 250 million years ago, began to split a. Continental drift b. Leaves elevated plateau Plateaus and Basins 1. “Plateau Continent” 2. Gradually uplifted with the breakup of Gondwanaland 3. Victoria Falls and the Rift Valley 4.
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