Bio 1201 Chapter 6 -

Bio 1201 Chapter 6 - - CHAPTER 6 A TOUR OF THE CELL...

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CHAPTER 6 A TOUR OF THE CELL Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes 6.2.2 I. An overview of “the cell” The cell is the simplest collection of matter that can live Cells are the basic units of structure and function Cells differ substantially for each other but they share certain common characteristics A. Microscopy 1. Light Microscopes (LMs) – the one you are most likely to use in labs; the ones first used by Renaissance scientists; visible light passes through the specimen and through the glass lenses, the lenses refract/bend the light in a way that the image is magnified II. Prokaryotic versus Eukaryotic cells Domains Bacteria and Achaea are prokaryotic cells; protists, fungi, animals and plants are eukaryotic cell A. Common Characteristics 1. All cells are bounded by a plasma membrane 2. The membrane contains a semi fluid substance called cytosol where the organelles are found 3. All cells have chromosomes that contain genes in the form of DNA 4. All cells have ribosome, tiny organelles that make proteins according to DNA B. Differences 1. The chromosomes of a eukaryotic cell are in the nucleus that is separated from rest of cell 2. DNA in prokaryotic cells is in the nucleoid, but no membrane separates them from rest of cell 3. The region between the nucleus and plasma membrane is cytoplasm that is in both, but in a eukaryotic, suspended in cytosol are a variety of membrane-bounded organelles of specialized form and function * The plasma functions as a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire volume of the cell * Larger organisms do not necessarily have larger cells, just more cells PROKARYOTES EUKARYOTES Single circular chromosome 2 or more linear chromosomes No nucleus or nuclear envelope Nucleus with a nuclear envelope Genetic material in a “nucleoid region” Genetic material within the nucleus No organelles Mitochondria Contains membrane-bound organelles C. Plant and Animal Cell Overview: The Basics – 6.2.3 (see fig 6.9) 1. Plant cells have: Chloroplasts in side = liquid 2 membranes – inner and outer membranes Thylakoid – arranged in a certain pattern stack up – called Granum Central vacuole and tonoplast Cell wall Plasmodesmata Primary wall – very thin Secondary cell wall – getting thicker and thicker (older = thicker) Middle lamella – holds the cells wall together (like cement) 2. Animal cells have: Lysosomes Centrioles Flagella (in some plant sperm) *Plasma membrane (see fig. 6.8) 3. Compartmental organization – in prokaryotic cells, there aren’t any subdivided regions within the cytoplasm; eukaryotic cells have well divided spaces which makes it more effective and able to separate tasks into diff. places The Nuclear Envelope: The Initial Tour – 6.2.5
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Nuclear Function: Who’s in Charge? – 6.2.6 The nucleus contains the cell’s genetic library (see fig. 6.10)
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Bio 1201 Chapter 6 - - CHAPTER 6 A TOUR OF THE CELL...

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