Bio 1201 Chapter 5 -

Bio 1201 Chapter 5 - - C HAPTER 5 STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF...

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CHAPTER 5 STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF MACROMOLECULES Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis: Disaccharides – 5.1.2 I. Macromolecules are large organic molecules, which are usually polymers A. Polymers are large molecules consisting of many identical or similar subunits connected together (like a train linking to a chain of cars) B. Monomer is a subunit (building blocks) of a polymer (ex : the cars) C. Polymerization – the bonding of many small subunits (monomers) to form long molecules (polymers) or vice versa 1. The reaction that forms from a polymer from monomers is a polymerization reaction 2. Condensation reactions are polymerization reaction in which covalent linkage of monomers is accompanied by “removal” of H2O molecules 3. Hydrolysis is breaking of covalent bond between two monomers by adding H2O 4. Most biological polymerization reactions are condensation reactions, also called a dehydration synthesis reaction (fig 5.2) D. Diversity in polymers comes from the variation in the arrangement of the monomers. II. Biological Macromolecules Four Classes of Macromolecules – carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins Macromolecule type Monomer type Linkage CARBOHYDRATES SUGARS GLYCOSIDIC LIPIDS FATTY ACIDS ESTER PROTEINS AMINO ACIDS PEPTIDE NUCLEIC ACIDS NUCLEOTIDE S PHOSPHODIEST ER Lipids won’t make the long chains (10s of thousands of monomers) Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides - 5.1.1 A. Carbohydrates – fuels and building materials 1. Carbs are molecules made of sugars and their polymers 2. Monosaccharides – single sugar; disaccharide – sucrose; polysaccharides – starch 3. Monomers of simple sugars – monosaccharides **Macromolecules >Carbs – carbs contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen > Monosaccharides (CH2O) – simplest carb B. General structure of carbohydrates (see fig 5.3) 1. Each carbon has a hydroxyl group (-OH) and at least one hydrogen (-H) attached to it for except one carbon, which has a carbonyl group instead of the hydroxyl; two types: aldose or ketose . 4. If something ends in –ose (sucrose, glucose, and triose) good indicator that it’s a carb 6. Monosaccharides can exist in a linear form or a linear formation (fig 5.4) – ring formation is more stable 7. Enantiomers exist for asymmetric carbons 8. In aqueous solutions, monosaccharides with 5 or more carbons in the skeleton form ring structures (fig 5.4)
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2010 for the course BIOL 1201 taught by Professor Wishtichusen during the Fall '07 term at LSU.

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Bio 1201 Chapter 5 - - C HAPTER 5 STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF...

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