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Bio 1201 Chapter 3 -

Bio 1201 Chapter 3 - - Chapter 3 Water and the Fitness of...

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Chapter 3 Water and the Fitness of the Environment Water: Hydrogen Bonding, Solubility, and Specific Heat - 3.1.1 Cells are 70-95% water. Water cover 70% of the earth’s surface. I. Some of the most biologically important polar covalent bonds are the bonds in water molecules. A. Because of these polar covalent bonds water is a polar molecule . 1. This is an example of an emergent property. 2. Polar covalent bonds are when the sharing of electrons is not equal 3. The polarity of water molecules makes water a good solvent for molecules that have charged regions (polar molecules) or atoms that are charged (ions) 4. Water is a very versatile solvent (see fig. 3.6 and fig 3.7). *Solution – a liquid that is homogenous mixture of two or more substances Solvent – liquid in which substances are dissolved Solute – the dissolved substance *Aqueous solution – when something is mixed/dissolved in water II . Interaction is based on change either partially charged or fully charged Atoms ability to pull electrons – electronegativity <- they both want some # of electrons so pull is same Example: Carbon: outershell is 4/8 full Hydrogen: outershell is ½ full Oxygen: valence shell is 6/8 full – more electronegative than ^ Nitrogen: valence shell is 5/8 full – more electronegative because bigger A. Water's polarity along with hydrogen bonding orders water into a higher level of structural order (see fig. 3.2).
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Because oxygen has a higher electronegativity, it pulls more electrons from the hydrogen molecules B. This higher structural order and polarity results in some other extraordinary emergent properties: 1. Water has a high specific heat making it resist changes in temperature This helps to moderate the effects of changes in temperature.
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Bio 1201 Chapter 3 - - Chapter 3 Water and the Fitness of...

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