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Unformatted text preview: Final Exam Review Name: Delonta Holmes Teacher: William Hawk Class: Critical Thinking Date 12-11-09 10:30 am Questions/Main Ideas: Notes Gettiers Is Justified True Belief Knowledge- S knows that P IFF- I. P is true, - ii. S believes that P, and - iii. S is justified in believing that P.- Read as:- A subject knows that proposition If and only if- The proposition is true.- The subject believes that proposition.- The subject is justified in believing that proposition.- His points about justification are these: 1.) The person may be justified in holding a false belief 2.) For any proposition p,if S is justified in believing p and p entails The Gettier Counterexample Smith is justified in believing (h) Brown is in Boston. Brown is in Boston. But. Jones does not own, he only is renting, a Ford. Smith has justified true belief that Jones owns a Ford or Brown is in Boston but he does not know it. Inductive Arguments and Cogency- Inductive Argument-- It is possible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false.- Inductive arguments are neither valid nor sound but some are stronger than others. - Distinction: Sound Deductive Argument / Cogent Inductive Argument Deductive arguments - is an argument in which it is thought that the premises provide a guarantee of the truth of the conclusion- If premises are true, its impossible for conclusion to be false- Validity does not Guarantee Soundness , i.e. the Conclusion may be False- Equivocation-- misleading use of a term. -- semantic ambiguity- amphiboly-- grammatical structure generating multiple meanings- Platos point in Allegory of the Cave- In the allegory, Plato likens people untutored in the Theory of Forms to prisoners chained in a cave, unable to turn their heads. All they can see is the wall of the cave. Behind them burns a fire. Between the fire and the prisoners there is a parapet, along which puppeteers can walk. The puppeteers, who are behind the prisoners, hold up puppets that cast shadows on the wall of the cave. The prisoners are unable to see these puppets, the real objects that pass behind them. What the prisoners see and hear are shadows and echoes cast by objects that they do not see.- Plato's point is that the prisoners would be mistaken. For they would be taking the terms in their language to refer to the shadows that pass before their eyes, rather than (as is correct, in Plato's view) to the real things that cast the shadows. Descartes various sources of knowledge to doubt, the reasons for doubt, the overcoming of doubt including cogito ergo sum Those things about which there are reasons to doubt: 1. Sense experience previous errors 2. Existential claims such as, I am here now. dreaming 3. Mathematical truths e.g. 2 + 3 = 5, an all-powerful, evil genius - Cogito ergo sum ="I think, I am." Indubitable knowledge about which Descartes is certain....
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