Lec_3_Wk_3_Fluid_statics_1_Compatibility_Mode_

Lec_3_Wk_3_Fluid_statics_1_Compatibility_Mode_ - Fluid...

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1 Fluid properties • Viscosity Dynamic viscosity, μ Kinematic viscosity, ν • Density, ρ • Specific volume, 1/ ρ • Specific weight, γ • Specific gravity, SG • Surface tension Surface tension • Capillarity • Cohesion vs adhesion • Units and conversion MZA@UTPChemEFluidMech Non Non-newtonian newtonian fluid fluid classification Rheopectic Viscosity increases with Lubricant Time-dependent viscosity duration of stress Lubricants Thixotropic Viscosity decreases with duration of stress Clays, honey Shear-stress-dependent viscosity Dilatant (Shear thickening) Viscosity increases with increased stress Corn starch, printing inks MZA@UTPChemEFluidMech Pseudoplastic (Shear thinning) Viscosity decreases with increased (stress Blood, ketchup Does not exhibit any shear rate (no flow) until a certain stress is achieved Bingham Viscosity constant Toothpaste, jellies
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2 Fluid Fluid Statics 1 Statics 1 Chapter 2 Week 3 Lecture Chapter 2 Week 3 Lecture 4&5 4&5 MZA@UTPChemEFluidMech Outline • Principles of fluid statics • Pressure – depth relationships • Pressure measurement • Pressure force on surface • Buoyancy MZA@UTPChemEFluidMech
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3 Learning Outcome At the end of the chapter, you should be able to: 1. Define the term “fluid statics” 2. Measure the pressure using manometers 3. Determine buoyancy forces MZA@UTPChemEFluidMech Fluid Statics Deal with forces applied by fluids at rest or in rigid-body motion ( Rigid body motion - fluid that is moving in such a manner that there is no relative motion between adjacent particles) MZA@UTPChemEFluidMech
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4 •E x am p l e : – Water in a tank. – Water in a lake (Water actually move very slowly in the lake. However the movement of water relative to each other is nearly zero that water is seen as “static”) MZA@UTPChemEFluidMech No shear stresses involved. (Assumption: fluid element moves as a rigid body, i.e. there is no relative motion between adjacent element) The only forces develop on the surfaces of the particles will be due to pressure MZA@UTPChemEFluidMech particles will be due to
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5 Types of pressure defined in fluid mechanics: Absolute pressure Gauge pressure Vacuum pressure MZA@UTPChemEFluidMech Absolute pressure, P abs • Actual pressure at a given position • Is measured relative to absolute vacuum (absolute zero pressure) Gage pressure, P gauge P gauge P abs • The difference between the absolute pressure and the local atmospheric pressure • Used in most pressure- measuring device. P atm MZA@UTPChemEFluidMech Absolute vacuum, P abs = 0
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6 Vacuum pressure, P vac • Pressures below P atm • Also known as – P gauge P vac P atm MZA@UTPChemEFluidMech Absolute vacuum, P abs = 0 P abs P gauge P abs P atm P vac P abs MZA@UTPChemEFluidMech Absolute vacuum, P abs = 0 Absolute vacuum, P abs = 0 P abs = P atm –P vac P abs = P atm + P gauge
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7 Example a) A vacuum gage connected to a chamber reads 24 kPa at location where the local atmospheric pressure is 92 kPa.
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Lec_3_Wk_3_Fluid_statics_1_Compatibility_Mode_ - Fluid...

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