1
Revision
First Law of Thermodynamics
Types of energy
3 ways that energy transferred to a system.
General Mechanical Energy Equation
3 types of non-flow work
Head form of Mechanical Energy Eqn
F
−
=
+
Δ
+
dm
dW
2
Δ
V
z
g
ρ
Δ
P
n.f
2
dW
Δ
V
Δ
z
Δ
P
n.f
2
F
−
=
+
+
Bernoulli’s Equation
Application: Nozzle and diffuser
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g
gdm
2g
ρ
g
0
2
V
z
g
ρ
P
2
=
Δ
+
Δ
+
Δ
Toricelli’s equation
Fluid Flow Measurement
Chapter 5 Lecture 12&13 Week 7
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Pitot tube
Pitot static tube
Venturi meter
Orifice meter
0
2
V
z
g
ρ
P
2
=
Δ
+
Δ
+
Δ

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2
•
A useful concept associated with Bernoulli’s equation
deals with the stagnation and dynamic pressures.
•
These pressures arise from the conversion of kinetic
energy in a flowing fluid into a “pressure rise” as the
fluid is brought to rest.
•
Bernoulli’s equation can be rewritten as:
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0
2
ρΔ
V
ρ
g
Δ
z
Δ
P
2
=
+
+
0
2
ρΔ
V
ρ
g
Δ
z
Δ
P
2
=
+
+
•
Static pressure
.
– One could
measure static
pressure in a
flowing fluid by
drilling a hole on
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drilling a hole on
a flat surface,
and attach a
piezometer tube.