L2-Chemical_Industries

L2-Chemical_Industries - CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES & CHEMICAL...

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CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES & CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
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LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this course, the students should be able: Understand the chemical industries Understand the chemical engineers profession & its chemical industries
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CHEMICAL INDUSTRY Many products such as ammonia, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, polymers etc are made in the respective chemical plants. As a chemical engineers, your must familiar with the following questions because you are directly responsible with the production of the products: End product? Materials used? Type of process used? Product properties? Use of the product? Where to market?
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BASF industry side in Germany CHEMICAL INDUSTRY Integrated complex production Shipment product feedstock residential
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EXAMPLE: AMMONIA PRODUCTION To produce ammonia, the hydrogen is catalytically reacted with nitrogen (derived from process air) to form anhydrous liquid ammonia. This step is known as the ammonia synthesis loop (also referred to as the Haber-Bosch process): Haber-Bosch Process Some properties of ammonia • Colorless gas with a characteristic pungent smell similar to human urine, as urine decomposes to release ammonia. • Lighter than air, with density being 0.589 times that of air. • Boils at -33.3 °C, and solidifies at -77.7 °C to a mass of white crystals. Materials, H 2 +N 2 Product, NH 3
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AMMONIA PRODUCTION Nitric Acid production 4 NH 3 + 5O 2 → 4 NO + 6 H 2 O 2 NO + O 2 → 2 NO 2 2 NO 2 + 2 H 2 O → 2 HNO 3 + H 2 The catalyst is essential, as the normal oxidation (or combustion) of ammonia gives nitrogen dioxide and water: This nitrogen dioxide is reacted with water to produce nitric acid for use in the production of fertilizer and explosives.
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AMMONIA USAGE Fertilizer As fertilizer ingredient Refrigeration Ammonia's thermodynamic properties made it one of the refrigerants commonly used in refrigeration units prior to the discovery of Freon or R12 in 1928. Disinfectant It is also sometimes added to drinking water along with chlorine to form chloramine, a disinfectant. Fuel Ammonia was used during World War II fuel shortages to power buses in Belgium and used in engine and solar energy applications prior to 1900. Cigarettes During the 1960s, tobacco companies such as Brown & Williamson and Philip Morris began using ammonia in cigarettes. Many hypotheses have appeared in the media and technical literature that ammonia enhances the amount of nicotine available to the smoker, nicotine's bioavailability, and the reinforcing or addictive
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L2-Chemical_Industries - CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES & CHEMICAL...

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