Analytic paper (2)

Analytic paper (2) - Three Apes Kyle Arthur Benzle 597.04...

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Three Apes Kyle Arthur Benzle 597.04 Ohio State University Aug. 23 2009
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Abstract The argument over human ancestry continues with a relatively new player claiming our closest relative lies in the genus Pongo, or orangutan, not the commonly assumed common progenerator with chimpanzees. Introduction As a species we still do not know where we come from or even how long we have been around. The field of anthropology in its many branches has come very close to a universal agreement of the uniquely shared common ancestry of the chimpanzee, bonobo and mankind. There is however still significant dissent, and gaining in popularity is the science supporting the orangutan as a closer relation than chimpanzee. This is not to mention an attack to the very core of the science being done, and a questioning of the theory of evolution itself from outside the scientific community, which will be given only the briefest of acknowledgment. Thesis Many disagree on the similarities of humans and the rest of the animal kingdom. For many, the close connections and DNA similarities we share can foster disagreeable feelings and hence resistance to the clues left by evolution. This paper will choose to focus on interesting and expressive genetic similarities between three of the species of Ape, chimps, bonobos and humans, as a way of demonstrating the afore mentioned relatedness. Through reporting evidence gathered from various reliable sources, relying greatly on the research being done by the Reich lab at Harvard University, I will demonstrate the close genetic based kinship between chimps, bonobos and humans, and why this version of phylogenesis is necessarily the correct one.
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Overview The popular paradigm that shapes a lot of the way both lay people and the science community think about human evolution can be expressed with the image in figure 1, it is representative of popular thinking, the great apes breaking off about fourteen million years ago, giving rise to orangutans, gorillas about seven million years ago, the genus Pan breaking off four to six millions years ago producing chimpanzee and bonobo, before a line giving rise to ourselves. This image was produced by the journal Nature as part of a learning series and which has this to say about it in the included disclaimer, emphasis mine. “The time estimates are based on the  assumption  that humans and  orangutans diverged 14 Myr ago and that molecular clock rates are equal on all  lineages. The chimpanzee–bonobo split has not been well studied with DNA  sequence data: the estimate shown is  based on fragmentary data ”  The debate over relatedness continues and the evidence for both sides seems good. The biggest opposition to the chimpanzee-human relatedness paradigm that many researchers share, including the pervading views coming from the Reich Lab at Harvard, is the one that morphologically, humans are more closely related to orangutans. The evidence for this will be
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This note was uploaded on 03/20/2010 for the course BIOCHEM 410 taught by Professor Whien during the Winter '10 term at Ohio State.

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Analytic paper (2) - Three Apes Kyle Arthur Benzle 597.04...

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