SOC 427 Notes

SOC 427 Notes - What is Health and How is it Measured and...

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What is Health and How is it Measured and Studied? Negative Definition: Life in the absence of disease and injury Absence of any specific of disease pathology or infirmity. Assumption of a healthy equilibrium. This is traditionally how health was viewed by the medical community. Positive Definition: State of complete physical social and mental well being and not just the absence of disease or infirmity- World Health Organization 1948. Not easy to make a categorical decision on whether a person is sick or not sick. Just because some one doesn’t fit into a disease category doesn’t mean they are not sick. Functional Definition No limitations on the ability to perform normal, physical, cognitive or social functions. Some diseases show no physical signs, like early stages of HIV Health is a complex multidimensional construct that refers to complete physical psychological and social well-being. Disease Refers to the presence of some pathophysiology in the body (anatomical or physiological abnormality or irregularity). Includes: Infection- presence of some exogenous biological agent such a as a bacteria or virus. Injury- damage to the body’s structure or function by an outside agent (can be physical or chemical). Vs. Symptoms Symptoms refer to any change in the physical or psychological condition experienced by an individual. Something physically experienced by an individual, like nausea or pain. Or something intangible like high white blood cell count or high blood pressure.
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Symptoms are indicators of a particular disease. Not all symptoms are associated with a particular disease, or symptoms are associated with a wide variety of diseases. Vs. Syndrome Syndrome refers to a constellation of symptoms or clinically recognizable features that tend to cluster together. A catch all diagnosis. Maybe caused by some underlying disease or condition, not always known what that disease is. Example: AIDS-attacks body, white blood cells, immune system. Not everyone gets the same symptoms. Attacks people differently. Disease Classification Scientific classification of diseases is known as Nosology. Diseases are classified in one of four ways: By their Etiolgoy- What agent or factor causes the disease: Most infections disease. By Their Pathogenesis- What is their pathway or mechanisms by which the agent causes the disease By their Symptomology- What symptoms are associated with the disease? By the tissue or organ system affected- Cancers Common Disease Classification International Classification of Disease (ICD) Established in 1893. Provides a uniform standard for classifying disease. Now in its 9 th incarnation. New diseases like Mad Cow or Bird Flu pop up. Illness- a state of disturbance in the normal functioning of the total human individual
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SOC 427 Notes - What is Health and How is it Measured and...

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