Unformatted text preview: (AS 13) Accounting for Investments Scope This Statement does not deal with: (a) the bases for recognition of interest, dividends and rentals earned on investments which are covered by Accounting Standard 9 on Revenue Recognition; (b) operating or finance leases; (c) investments of retirement benefit plans and life insurance enterprises; and (d) mutual funds and/or the related asset management companies, banks and public financial institutions formed under a Central or State Government Act or so declared under the Companies Act, 1956. Definitions
The following terms are used in this Statement with the meanings specified: meanings • Investments are assets held by an enterprise for earning income by way of Investments dividends, interest, and rentals, for capital appreciation, or for other benefits to the investing enterprise. Assets held as stock-in-trade are not 'investments'. 'investments'. A current investment is an investment that is by its nature readily realisable and is intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investment is made. date A long term investment is an investment other than a current investment. investment. An investment property is an investment in land or buildings that are An not intended to be occupied substantially for use by, or in the operations of, the investing enterprise. the • • • Definitions
• Fair value is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged between a knowledgeable, willing buyer and a knowledgeable, willing seller in an arm's length transaction. Under appropriate circumstances, market value or net realisable value provides an evidence of fair value. Market value is the amount obtainable from the • sale of an investment in an open market, net of expenses necessarily to be incurred on or before disposal. Cost of Investments
• • The cost of an investment includes acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and The duties. duties. If an investment is acquired, or partly acquired, by the issue of shares or other If securities, the acquisition cost is the fair value of the securities issued The fair value may not necessarily be equal to the nominal or par value of the securities issued. may If an investment is acquired in exchange, or part exchange, for another asset, the If acquisition cost of the investment is determined by reference to the fair value of the asset given up. It may be appropriate to consider the fair value of the investment acquired if it is more clearly evident. acquired Interest, dividends and rentals receivables in connection with an investment are Interest, generally regarded as income, being the return on the investment. However, in some circumstances, such inflows represent a recovery of cost and do not form part of income. For example, when unpaid interest has accrued before the acquisition of an interest-bearing investment and is therefore included in the price paid for the investment, the subsequent receipt of interest is allocated between pre-acquisition and post-acquisition periods; the pre-acquisition portion is deducted from cost. When dividends on equity are declared from pre-acquisition profits, a similar treatment may apply. If it is difficult to make such an allocation except on an arbitrary basis, the cost of investment is normally reduced by dividends receivable only if they clearly represent a recovery of a part of the cost. represent • • • When right shares offered are subscribed for, the cost of the right shares is added to the carrying amount of the original holding. If rights are not subscribed for but are sold in the market, the sale proceeds are taken to the profit and loss statement. However, where the investments are acquired on cumright basis and the market value of investments immediately after their becoming exright is lower than the cost for which they were acquired, it may be appropriate to apply the sale proceeds of rights to reduce the carrying amount of such investments to the market value. Types of Investments Current Investments Long Term Investments Valuation of Current Investments A current investment is an investment that is by its nature readily realisable and is intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investment is made. The carrying amount for current investments is the lower of cost and fair value. In respect of investments for which an active market exists, market value generally provides the best evidence of fair value. The valuation of current investments at lower of cost and fair value provides a prudent method of determining the carrying amount to be stated in the balance sheet. Valuation of current investments on overall (or global) basis is not considered appropriate. Sometimes, the concern of an enterprise may be with the value of a category of related current investments and not with each individual investment, and accordingly the investments may be carried at the lower of cost and fair value computed categorywise (i.e. equity shares, preference shares, convertible debentures, etc.). However, the more prudent and appropriate method is to carry investments individually at the lower of cost and fair value. For current investments, any reduction to fair value and any reversals of such reductions are included in the profit and loss statement. Valuation of Long Term Valuation Investments Investments Long-term investments are usually carried at cost. However, when Long-term
there is a decline, other than temporary, in the value of a long term investment, the carrying amount is reduced to recognise the decline. Indicators of the value of an investment are obtained by reference to its market value, the investee's assets and results and the expected cash flows from the investment. The type and extent of the investor's stake in the investee are also taken into account. Restrictions on distributions by the investee or on disposal by the investor may affect the value attributed to the investment. investor amounts of long term investments, the resultant reduction in the carrying amount is charged to the profit and loss statement. The reduction in carrying amount is reversed when there is a rise in the value of the investment, or if the reasons for the reduction no longer exist exist Where there is a decline, other than temporary, in the carrying Where Investment Properties Investment Properties
• The cost of any shares in a co-operative society or a company, the holding of which is directly related to the right to hold the investment property, is added to the carrying amount of the investment property. Disposal of Investments Disposal On disposal of an investment, the difference On
between the carrying amount and the disposal proceeds, net of expenses, is recognised in the profit and loss statement. profit individual investment, the carrying amount to be allocated to that part is to be determined on the basis of the average carrying amount of the total holding of the investment. holding When disposing of a part of the holding of an When Reclassification of Reclassification Investments Investments Where Where
long-term investments are reclassified as current investments, transfers are made at the lower of cost and carrying amount at the date of transfer. transfer. current to long-term, transfers are made at the lower of cost and fair value at the date of transfer. of Where investments are reclassified from Where Disclosure in Financial Statements Disclosure
The following disclosures in financial statements in relation to investments are appropriate:— (a) the accounting policies for the determination of carrying amount of investments; (b) the amounts included in profit and loss statement for: (i) interest, dividends (showing separately dividends from subsidiary companies), and rentals on investments showing separately such income from long term and current investments. Gross income should be stated, the amount of income tax deducted at source being included under Advance Taxes Paid; (ii) profits and losses on disposal of current investments and changes in carrying amount of such investments; (iii) profits and losses on disposal of long term investments and changes in the carrying amount of such investments; (c) significant restrictions on the right of ownership, realisability of investments or the remittance of income and proceeds of disposal; (d) the aggregate amount of quoted and unquoted investments, giving the aggregate market value of quoted investments; (e) other disclosures as specifically required by the relevant statute governing the enterprise Burning Issues Burning
• Can Loss on Sale of Investments Deducted Directly from Investment Reserves? The Board is of the view that as per Schedule VI, it is permissible, until such amendments are made to Schedule VI, to adjust loss on sale of investments against investment reasons only to the extent it was created by a debit to P&L Account in earlier years and excess of loss should be charged to P&L Account. Treatment of Investment and Marketable Securities
Only unrealized depreciation on AFS (Available-For-Sale) securities is recognized in the income statement. US GAAP
Both appreciation and depreciation (if unrealized) is recognized as Other Comprehensive Income. Separate standard for treatment of cost of development of computer software. IFRS
Similar to US GAAP. Except option to recognize gains/losses in AFS either income statement or equity. However, the selection is a one-time option. No guideline under IFRS. Thank You ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/21/2010 for the course KNOWLEDGE 5654 taught by Professor Mr.david during the Spring '10 term at IESE Business School.
- Spring '10