Lecture 5.0-Memory

Lecture 5.0-Memory - COGNITION LECTURE FIVE MEMORY Schema...

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C OGNITION - L ECTURE F IVE : M EMORY 2/4/2010 Schema Theories of Memory The pure concept of memory traces is that they are laid down in memory as distinct, permanent copies of previous experiences (almost like a tape recorder). Reappearance hypothesis: The hypothesis that memory is a re=experiencing of the past. By contrast, if memory is schematic, it does not use “stored copies of finished mental event” but relies instead on fragments used to support a new construction. Mystic writing pad: A model of memory based on a children’s toy writing tablet that allows new messages to be written on one level, while fragments of old messages accumulate on another level. Brown and Kulik came up with the idea of flashbulb memories . They proposed a specific theory of the mechanism that produces such memories called the Now Print theory . Flashbulb memories: Vivid, detailed memories of significant events. Now Print Theory: The theory that a specific process, lays down in memory, copies of especially significant events. McCloskey et al. concluded that flashbulb memories are not necessarily more accurate than normal memories, and that a special flashbulb mechanism need not be postulated in order to account for them. Rather, so-called flashbulb memories are the consequences of the same factors that influence ordinary memories. Weaver suggested that the confidence we have in flashbulb memories comes from our realization that we have witnessed a historically important event, and wish to preserve in our memory a sense of having participated in it. Are Memory Traces Permanent? The classic approach to memory traces is called the consolidation theory. Consolidation theory: The theory that memory traces of an event are not fully formed immediately after that event, but take some time to become complete. This process of consolidation can be disrupted by events that occur after the to-be-remembered event, a phenomenon called retroactive interference. Retroactive Interference: A decline in the recall of one thing experienced as a result of later experiencing something else. It is known that the hippocampus is a crucial site for the consolidation of memory traces, converting immediate memories into long-term memories.
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C OGNITION - L ECTURE F IVE : M EMORY 2/4/2010 Hippocampus: A site in the brain crucial for the consolidation of memory traces. When the stored trace is reactivated, it becomes labile. Thus, the recall of previous experience places it in working memory, where it comes into contact with other experiences. The revised trace would then undergo reconsolidation in the hippocampus. Reconsolidation: They hypothetical process whereby a memory trace is revised and undergoes consolidation again. The schema concept was made a central part of the psychology of memory by the work of Bartlett.
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Lecture 5.0-Memory - COGNITION LECTURE FIVE MEMORY Schema...

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