Processing sensory information such that it produces a meaningful understanding of the
: A deficiency in the ability to recognize visual information despite being able to see. It’s
not that visual agnosics have a sensory impairment—their eyes are fine. They just cannot cognitively
interpret the information they see.
Visual agnosia is also specific to the visual domain. When presented with everyday objects such as
brush, patients can identify them by means of using other senses such as touch.
a form of visual agnosia marked by a difficulty naming objects. These patients have
trouble identifying objects that they see even though they have the visual ability to reproduce the objects
by drawing them.
When individuals with time spaces
hear or see the names of various units of time such as days, weeks, and
months, they experience seeing them in spatial patterns external to themselves.
: the perceptual experience of times units such as days of the week or months of the
year as occupying spatial locations outside the body.
Perception as a Function of the Environment
Gibson’s theory of ecological optics
(perception involves directly absorbing the visual information present
in the environment) focused on the idea that in real-world situations, the sensory organs receive a complex
array of information that can be directly apprehended and used to guide action.
Gibson articulated, “Perception is the function of stimulation and stimulation is a function of the
environment; hence perception is a function of the environment”.
He argued that perception is
accomplished mostly by the sensory organs themselves.
Gibson described this panorama of visual information available as we look out at the world from any
given position as the ambient optical array (AOA)
. Gibson noted that from every different viewing point,
a unique pattern of light enters the eyes because it is reflected from and emitted by a unique combination
Ambient optical array (AOA):
All the visual information that is present at a particular point of view.
Gradual changes in the patter of a surface that is normally assumed to be uniform,
which provides information about surface characteristics such as whether the surface is receding or
Gibson also noted that when two different textures intersect, they create a discontinuity in the pattern,
which he called a topological breakage
A critical aspect of Gibson’s paradigm was the he included observer and environment motion as a
fundamental component of perception. He believed that as the mover moves, the entire optical array
undergoes a change. This change in the way all surfaces project light on the retina is referred to as a
of the optic array.
: In the theory proposed by Gibson (1966), the change of optical information
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