Organizational_Behavior_Ch04

Organizational_Behavior_Ch04 - Chapter 4 Perception,...

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Chapter 4
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Perception, Attribution, and Learning Chapter at a Glance A particularly striking thing about the current American OB landscape is the importance of perception and its cousins attribution and learning. As you read Chapter 4, keep in mind these study topics . THE PERCEPTION PROCESS Factors Influencing Perception Stages of the Perceptual Process Response to the Perceptual Process COMMON PERCEPTUAL DISTORTIONS Stereotypes or Prototypes Halo Effects Selective Perception Projection Contrast Effects Self-Fulfilling Prophecies MANAGING PERCEPTIONS Impression Management Distortion Management ATTRIBUTION THEORY The Importance of Attributions Attribution Errors Attributions across Cultures INDIVIDUAL LEARNING Reinforcement Social Learning Theory CHAPTER 4 STUDY GUIDE It’s in the eye of the beholder
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B ecky Rangel, a 4-foot-10-inch, 17- year-old brigade commander at Seagonville, Texas, High School, is the new face of Junior ROTC (JROTC) in many large urban pro- grams. She is the sen- ior commander of JROTC programs for 19 Dallas high schools. Female, and often a minority group mem- ber, these leaders now represent some 53 per- cent of the Dallas program. Six or seven students com- manding Dallas Indepen- dent School District cadet brigades recently were females. Often stereotyped as “jalapenos”, “pickles,” or “cucumbers” by some of the other students, particularly females, they are also seen as role models by many, in- cluding young males. Indeed, Becky has strengthened the way she is perceived and has belied the prevailing female stereotype by doing 62 pushups a minute, becoming a National Honor Society parliamentarian, and being chosen for the varsity soccer and cross-country teams. She has clearly overcome the tendency of Hispanic male students not to follow females and can now bark orders with the best of them. To all this, Becky’s reply is. “You know what, I’m making something of myself.” These opportunities have occurred since the ROTC reorganization in 1972. Colonel Arthur L. Holmes Jr., director of Army Instruction for the Atlanta Public Schools, argues: “It’s a success story. This country just needs to brace itself; it’s coming—females are going to be in these leadership roles.” 1A It’s obvious from all this that per- ception, and its cousins—attribution and learning—are very important. This in- creasing importance makes it necessary to understand the topics addressed in this chapter. “You know what, I’m making something of myself.” 80 The Perception Process A spectacular completed pass during the 1982 National Football Conference cham- pionship game helped propel Joe Montana, former San Francisco 49er quarter- back, into the legendary status he enjoys today. The reverse effect apparently occurred for Danny White, the Dallas Cowboys’ quarterback. He fumbled in the final minute of the same game and never obtained the status of his predecessor, Roger Staubach, even though White took the Cowboys to the championship game
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This note was uploaded on 03/21/2010 for the course NA MGT 307 taught by Professor Unknown during the Spring '10 term at University of Phoenix.

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Organizational_Behavior_Ch04 - Chapter 4 Perception,...

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