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Chapter 4 Questions and Answers

Chapter 4 Questions and Answers - Chapter 4 study questions...

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Chapter 4 study questions 1. descriptive epidemiology – concerned with characterizing the amount and distribution of disease within a population; precede analytic studies; used to identify any health problems that may exist 2. descriptive epidemiology has 3 broad objectives in relation to studying about diseases: 1. Permits evaluation of trends in health and disease and comparison amount countries and subgroups within countries 2. Provides a basis for planning, provision, and evaluation of health services 3. Identifies problems to be studied by analytic methods and suggests areas that may be fruitful for investigation Descriptive epidemiology promotes the creation of a hypothesis by identifying health problems and characterizing the amount and distribution of the disease within a population. These studies can lead to the creation of positive and negative declarations and implicit questions. Mill’s canons of inductive reasoning are logical processes for deriving hypotheses. They are different ways descriptive epidemiology can be used in order to create a hypothesis. The four canons are: the method of difference, agreement, concomitant variation, and residues. 3. Categories of descriptive epidemiology: Case reports (counts) – individual cases described Case series – involves a summary of the characteristics of a consecutive listing of patients from one or more major clinical settings. Many case reports put together. Cross-section studies – surveys of the population to estimate the prevalence of a disease or exposures 4. Examples of age associations – TB has two peaks, one between age 0 and 4 years and another around age 20 to 29 years. The increase in prevalence of the disease in the early years of life may be due to the increase susceptibility of children to infectious diseases, and the other peak during adult hood may reflect the increased social interaction of individual sat this age or change in immune status due to puberty. Health issues that impact teenagers are accidence, violence, and suicide. In the age group 20 to 34 years, accidental injury is the leading cause of death. Other causes of age-related
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changes in rates of morbidity and mortality are related to life cycle and behavior phenomena. Accidents, homicide, and suicide as causes of mortality differ greatly in importance according to age group; variations in these three causes of death are influenced by factors such as personal behavior and risk taking, especially among the young. Lifestyle influences the occurrence of diabetes and other chronic diseases, may of which are believed to have significant behavior components. Some aging-associated problems, which impact the far end of the age distribution, illustrate life cycle phenomena.
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Chapter 4 Questions and Answers - Chapter 4 study questions...

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