Chapter 2 Questions and Answers

Chapter 2 Questions and Answers - 1 a Secular changes the...

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1. a. Secular changes – the study of changes in disease frequency over time b. Operations research - the study of the placement of health services in a community and the optimum utilization of such services c. Risk factor - an exposure that is associated with the disease d. The natural history of disease - the course of disease from its beginning to its final clinical end points e. Demographic transition - refers to the historical shift from high birth and death rates found in agrarian societies to much lower birth and death rates found in developed countries f. Epidemiologic transition - a shift in the pattern of morbidity and mortality from causes related primarily to infectious and communicable diseases to causes associated with chronic, degenerative diseases g. Disorders: disappearing, residual, persisting, epidemic - Disappearing - those disorders that were formerly common sources of morbidity and mortality in developed countries but that at present have nearly disappeared in their epidemic form Residual - disease for which the key contributing factors are largely known but specific methods of control have not been effectively implemented Persisting - disease that remain common because an effective method of prevention or cure evades discovery New epidemic - diseases that are increasing markedly in frequency in comparison with previous time periods h. Population pyramid - represents the age and sex composition of the population of an area or country at a point in time 2. a. Motor vehicle accidents - primary: wearing a helmet, secondary: quick admission to the emergency room, tertiary: physical therapy b. Obesity - primary: exercise, secondary: healthy diet, tertiary: weight loss program c. Hepatitis A - primary:
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