Lect_No_1-_Introduction - ADVANCE PROCESS MODELING Assoc...

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Unformatted text preview: ADVANCE PROCESS MODELING Assoc Prof. Ir. Dr. Dr Mohd Sobri Takriff Dept. of Chemical & Process Engineering, UKM Course Information Course Information UKM Learning portal 1 Questions What do you know about process model?? What do you expect to learn in this course?? A typical production process Product X is produced via a chemical reaction or raw materials A and B. Byproducts (Y & Z) with commercial values are produced in the reaction. Products with desired quality are recovered via a sequence of separation network. 2 Chem. Engr. Processes Convert raw materials into desired products May involve Reaction Separation Cooling, heating, pressurization, etc Chem. Engr. Processes Process developments Identifying individual transformation or changes (physical or chemical) 3 stages Process synthesis Process analysis optimization 3 Chem. Engr. Processes Process Synthesis Identifying individual transformation or changes (physical or chemical) Identifying the interconnectivity among the transformation process flow diagram – graphical representation of a chem engr process Chem. Engr. Processes 4 Chem. Engr. Processes Process Analysis Required for the following purposes i. Solving material and energy balance along with property estimation ii. Sizing and costing of equipments iii. Economics evaluations Chem. Engr. Processes Optimization Identifying the process constraints (eg energy cost, raw material supply, physical limitation of mechanical equipments, etc) determined the most economical / profitable process conditions but at the same time meeting safety and environmental requirements 5 Chem. Engr. Processes Role of process modeling? Benefits / advantages of process modeling? Definition Model is derived from the Latin – modus which means a measure. Used as a noun it means “a small representation of a planned or existing object” Webster’s New World Dictionary 6 Model Definition A mathematical or physical system, obeying certain specified conditions, whose behaviour is used to understand a physical, biological or social system to which it is analogous in some way McGraw-Hill Dictionary of scientific and technical terms 7 Definition A process model is a set of equations (including the necessary input data) that allows us to predict the behaviour of a chemical system Bequette, B.W, 1998 Use of model Operator Training Process operators – people responsible for chemical manufacturing processes A dynamic process model can be used to simulate a given process for training purposes Operator can learn proper response to upset conditions in a safe manner 8 Use of model Safety Design of safety systems. e.g time for pressure to develop to critical value in an event a relief valve fails How models are used? Safety Impact of equipment failure Hazard zones Release events 9 How models are used? How models are used? 10 How models are used? Environmental dispersion Fate of pollutant How models are used? 11 How models are used? Use of model Process design Proper design of a chemical process for a specific production rate Modification of existing process 12 Use of Model Control system design Testing of a complex control system prior to implementation. Expected performance of control system System A collection of matter with a similar identity. 13 Steady state vs dynamic behaviour Steady state Most important criteria is that the characteristics of a system do not change with time Dynamic behaviour its characteristics changes with time Modeling principles Dynamic models consists of differential equations ( ODEs/PDEs combined with algebraic equations Material balances Energy Balances Force /momentum balances Algebraic equations from thermodynamics and transport relations 14 Classification of model Theoretical model – developed from principles of physics and chemistry Empirical models – obtained from mathematical and statistical analysis Semi-empirical model – compromise between the above to models 1st Assignment A three page write-up on process modeling. Minimum 5 references. Include list of reference cited. 15 ...
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