RelativeResourceManager - MID-TERM EXAM PHIL/EN GR 482 FALL...

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Unformatted text preview: MID-TERM EXAM PHIL/EN GR 482, FALL, 2007, PM SECTION NAME SECTION TA UIN Aggie Code of Honor: An aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal or tolerate those who do, (Signature) Please be sure that you enter your correct UIN number on the Scantron. 1. Common morality (a) Gives no consideration to the intent or motivation of an action, when evaluating the action or the person who did it (b) Consists of those moral beliefs about particular moral issues that agree with one’s personal ethics (0) Consists of those moral beliefs about particular moral issues that have not ~ changed through time (d) None of the above 2. In a line-drawing analysis, the paradigm cases are (a) cases in which an action is clearly right (b) cases in which an action is clearly wrong (c) cases in which an action is either clearly right or wrong (d) cases in which an action is neither clearly right nor wrong 3. Brenda and James agree that murder is wrong, but they disagree about whether euthanasia is murder. They disagree about a(n): (a) application issue (b) conceptual issue (c) factual issue (d) moral issue 4. How does the “standard account of professional ethics, as explained in class, deal with the situation in which a professional is asked by his or her employer or client to do something the professional thinks is immoral? (a) The professional should honor the request anyway (b) The professional need not honor the request, but should refer the employer or client to someone who will (c) The professional should try to convince the client or employer that his or her request is immoral (d) The professional should not respond to the request in any way 5. Professional morality in engineering (a) Has not changed through time (b) Consists 'of some requirements that can at times conflict (c) Has always had provisions requiring the protection of the environment (d) Has never had provisions requiring the protection of the environment 6. Exposing employees to less than 5 ppm of benzene produces no health risks whatsoever. This is a(n) (a) conceptual claim (b) moral Claim ' (c) factual claim (d) application claim 7. Employees should not be exposed to a level of benzene that has the potential to cause health risks. This is a(n) (a) moral claim (b) conceptual claim (c) factual claim (d) application claim 8. Which of the following are characteristics of a “profession” as it has been described in this course? (a) A monopoly or near-monopoly on certain types of services (b) Relative freedom or autonomy in the workplace (0) A strong degree of self-regulation (d) All ofthe above 9. An easy moral choice, as defined in the textbook, occurs when: (a) Moral principles do not conflict (b) Moral principles conflict, but one principle clearly has a higher priority than the other (c) Moral principles conflict, and it is unclear which principle should be given higher priority (d) None of the above 10. A creative middle way analysis is most appropriate when: (a) Moral principles conflict, but one principle has clear priority over the other(s) (b) We are not able to honor real and important conflicting moral principles in a way that we consider desirable (c) We think we can at least partially meet the demands of conflicting moral principles (d) Moral principles do not conflict II. In which of the following questions would professional engineering ethics answer “yes” when one’s personal ethics might answer “no”? (a) Is it permissible to submit competitive bids (in terms of cost) to a state or government entity? (b) Is it permissible to work on military projects? (c) Is it permissible to reveal confidences if required by a court order? (d) Both b and c 12. Which of the following can line-drawing analyses not be used to decide? (a) moral issues (b) factual issues (c) application issues (d) Both a and c 13. Bryan’s boss told him that he must interpret data in a way that Bryan finds questionable or he will lose his job. Which of the following is not a creative middle way to deal with the predicament? (a) Interpret the data the way the boss requested, but also note in his report that other interpretations are possible (b) Ask the boss to find someone else to interpret the data this time, which would allow Bryan to avoid acting against his conscience as well as allow him to possibly keep his job (c) Show the data to several of his co-workers and create a group that will petition the boss to use better judgment (d) Interpret the data the way the boss requested, retain a low opinion of the “bosses integrity.” 14. Cost-benefit analyses are most closely related to (a) rule utilitarianism (b) act utilitarianism (c) RP (d) Both RP and rule utilitarianism 15. Unfortunately, NASA exhibited many types of behavior illustrative of “impediments to responsible action” in connection with the Challenger and Columbia flights. For example, NASA managers convinced themselves that past successes showed that nothing bad could happen. This illustrates (a) Self—deception ' (b) Microscopic vision (c) Fear (d) Ignorance 16. One can give both utilitarian and RP arguments as to why dishonesty in engineering research and testing is wrong. Which of the following are utilitarian arguments? (a) Dishonesty undermines the trust which makes work in a scientific or technical community possible and thereby destroys the good it can produce (b) Dishonesty undermines the ability of government officials to make sound decisions in the public interest (c) Dishonesty gives false information to individuals who want to make free and informed decisions based on scientific and technical knowledge (d) Both a and b 17. According to the NSPE code, and professional ethics generally, how should engineers respond to actual and potential conflicts of interest? (a) Avoid them (b) Disclose them (c) Disclose them if they are actual, but not if merely potential (d) Disclose them only if you think they might corrupt your judgment 18. Which of the following is a positive right? (a) Right to life (b) Right not to be stolen from (0) Right to bodily integrity (d) Right to healthcare 19. From an RP perspective, which of the following can help one decide which course of action to choose when rights conflict? (a) Determine which rights are more basic, and therefore more worth honoring (b) Determine how many people will be affected by each course of action, and then choose the course which violates the least number of peoples’ rights, regardless of the importance of the rights involved (c) Determine whether a rights violation promotes the well-being of society (d) None of the above 20. Applying the Golden Rule can be problematic because: (a) the agent may be willing to accept the consequences of an action if put in the recipient’s position, while the recipient is nevertheless unwilling to accept these consequences (b) the agent may be unwilling to accept the consequences of an action if put in the recipient’s position, even though the recipient finds these consequences more appealing than the consequences of any alternative (c) The agent and recipient haVe differing personal moralities and are therefore unable to accept the other’s perspective. (d) All of the above 21. John is participating in a design that requires 100,000 bolts. For the past 100 years, John’s family has owned a company, JayCo, that makes bolts. If the bolts are specified in such a way that the bolts must be purchased from JayCo, John’s stock in J ayCo will increase by 20 percent. John specifies the J ayCo bolts, even though they are not the best for the design. This is (a) An actual conflict of interest (b) A potential conflict of interest (0) An apparent conflict of interest (d) Not a conflict of interest 22. Sociologist Diane Vaughan argues that “normalizing deviance” is a common way that the risk of disasters is increased in engineering. This concept involves, most directly, (a) Assigning emotionally unstable engineers to a sensitive project (b) Expanding the boundaries of acceptable risk with insufficient justification (c) Assigning technically unqualified engineers to a project (d) Both a and c 23. In the law and some philosophical theory, corporations are considered to be morally responsible agents. In theory about corporations, which of the following characteristic(s) make corporations like morally responsible agents? (a) They have decision—making mechanisms (b) They have policies that guide decisions (c) They have an indefinite life span (d) Both a and b ' 24. Which of the following describes the relationship between good works and basic duties? (a) We are usually morally obligated to do both (b) Good works are typically the focus of professional ethical codes, because basic duties are so obvious that they need not be stated (0) Basic duties are deemed so fundamental to professional codes of ethics that failure to meet them typically results in sanction, whereas one is rarely sanctioned for failing to do a good work (d) All of the above. 25. A legal device that protects the expression of an idea, but not the idea itself, is a (a)Trade secret (b)Patent (c)Trademark (d)Copyright 26. Scott, a design engineer, has a brother who owns a small company that manufactures a device for shutting off the fuel supply to boilers when the pressure gets too high. Scott thinks his brother’s product is superior to anything else on the market, but he wonders whether he should specify it in his designs. (a) If he specifies the part, he has a conflict of interest, which he should disclose (b) He should not specify the part (c) If he specifies the part, he has a potential conflict of interest, which would only be an actual conflict of interest if the part is not the best on the market (d) If he specifies the part, he has an apparent conflict of interest, but not an actual one, because others will think the specified the part only because his brother makes it 27. Which of the following is an example of a conceptual issue? (a) Deciding whether gifts accepted from students are bribes (b) Deciding whether “bribery” has been used in the same way throughout history (c) Deciding whether and how bribery is different from extortion (d) All of the above 28. In which of the following sequences are the causal conditions of an action arranged from those entailing the greatest moral responsibility and legal liability to the least moral responsibility and legal liability? (a) recklessness, intentionality, negligence (b) intentionality, negligence, recklessness (c) intentionality, recklessness, negligence (d) negligence, recklessness, intentionality 29. The “problem of many hands” as applied to professional or organizational ethics describes (a) How difficult it is to make ethical decisions when too many people are involved, and therefore how responsibility for decision making should be delegated to individuals within the organization (b) The way in which individuals attempt to Shirk responsibility for wrongdoing when the wrong has been perpetrated by a group with many members playing a role in causing the harm (c) Both A and B (d) Niether A nor B 30. What does the T B P E code say that engineers should do about the environment? (a) Nothing (b) Examine the environmental impact of their work (0) Refuse to work on projects whose effect on the environment they believe is unacceptable . (d) Notify governmental agencies when they believe environmental laws have been broken by their employers 31. NASA managers probably exhibited egocentric thinking when they (a) Made decisions from an exclusively managerial perspective, involving such issues as cost, political implications, and schedule (b) Required engineers to prove that Columbia was not safe to launch, instead of requiring them to prove that it was safe to launch (c) Assumed that the interests of the whole organization should take priority over other interests, including their own (d) Both a and c 32. In thinking about his personal moral views regarding the environment, an engineer should (a) Realize that even in his professional work, personal moral views on the environment should override the rules in the codes on the environment (b) Realize that his personal moral Views on the environment sometimes lead to the same conclusion as his professional obligations on the environment - ' (c) Realize that his personal moral views on the environment are always going to be more demanding than his professional obligations (d) Realize that his personal moral views are always going to be different from his professional views 33. In the Challenger case, some engineers were highly critical of the policy on how a decision to launch was justified. Why? (a) The policy was changed from one having to justify that a launch was safe to one having justify that it was unsafe (b) The policy was changed from one having to justify that a launch was unsafe to one having to justify that it was safe (c) The policy was changed from one requiring that a majority of engineers agree to launch before a launch decision was considered justified to one requiring all engineers agree to launch before a launch decision was considered justified (e) The policy was changed so that all manager and engineers had to agree not to launch before a no—launch decision was considered justified. ANSWERS PWNPP‘PPN!‘ HHHHHHH P‘P‘PP’NH? NNl—‘H “999°. - NOT COVERED NNNNN p P‘F‘PPJP. N mm)wnnnwunom>U>0m0>mowommo>nmm>no - NOT COVERED NN 90>: 29. - NOT COVERED E) ...
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RelativeResourceManager - MID-TERM EXAM PHIL/EN GR 482 FALL...

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