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Unformatted text preview: Study Guide: Psychology 1101 Spring 2009 Exam One • Approximately what % of psychologists are involved in the treatment of patients? o 55% • How was psychology defined in class? o The study of mental processes and behavior • What did Ebbinghaus mean with, “Psychology has a long past but a short history.”? o Philosophical questions dating back to Ancient Greece and before and the development of reason and the scientific method in the 1700s are the long past. The short history begins in Wundt’s first official psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany 1879. • What was Hippocrates noted for in lecture? o Advocates the practice of medicine devoid of religious rituals • According to Bacon, how should the “inductive method” proceed? How does induction differ from deduction? Of what importance is this to the scientific process? o Collect reliable information by experimentation, make minor generalizations based upon your observations, replicate the observations in order to establish scientific laws, use laws to generate predictions for novel scenarios o Induction- the process of reasoning in which the premises of an argument are believed to support the conclusion but do not entail it o Duduction- reasoning which uses deductive arguments to move from given statements (premises ) to conclusions • According to staunch empiricists, all knowledge is derived from what? How does that match up with “nativism?” Which of the two theories is consistent with “tabula rasa?” o Empiricism: tabula rasa: all knowledge is derived from sensory experience; born as a clean slate o Nativism: the Socratic Method: all knowledge is innate due to reincanation • Was early psychology (e.g. the work of Pavlov, Ebbinghaus, Wundt, et cetera) based more upon physiological studies or was it more based upon treating patients with disorders? o Physiological studies • When and by whom was the first officially recognized psychology laboratory created? o Wilhelm Wundt in 1879 • What was the main goal of Structuralism as a school of psychological investigation? o To determine the “periodic table” of conscious thought • What does it mean to say that Functionalism emphasized “adaptive advantage?” o Evolutionary significance • Did Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory focus more on conscious or unconscious processes? o unconscious • According to behaviorists like John Watson and B.F. Skinner, psychologists should concern themselves with measuring only what? o Observable behaviors • Be familiar with the John B Watson (1925) quote. o “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in, and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of spet I might select—doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant, chief, and yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.” •...
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- Spring '08
- Psychology, communication b/w neurons, neurotransmitter molecules, official psychology lab