Ch. 7 Part 1

Ch. 7 Part 1 - Chapter 7 Cognition, Language and...

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Chapter 7 Cognition, Language and Intelligence
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Cognition How we store, access and use information utilizing memory
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Cognitive Maps Adaptive Value These maps are mental representations of our environments They have been shown to integrate visual images and verbal knowledge in humans
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Cognitive Maps Do not need to be precise in order to be useful “We store an approximate visual image of the map as well as some general knowledge about the geography of the area.” This phenomenon illustrates the principle that “memory is constructive .”
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Who Needs Mapquest.com? Close your eyes and visualize how you would travel: From here to Ramsey From here to downtown Atlanta From your dorm/apartment to your parents’ house.
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Organizing Our Knowledge Base A library would be considerably less useful if there wasn’t some overriding organization to how books, periodicals and other resources were stored. Similarly, in order for our knowledge base to serve us optimally, our cognitions needs to be arranged systematically.
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Concepts Mental categories that contain related bits of knowledge Organized around the “meaning” of the information they represent For example, “animal” is a concept What makes something an animal?
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Concepts Evidence suggests that humans store conceptual information semantically . Concepts function as a sort of mental “shorthand” Concepts are abstractions , not concrete instances
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From Concept to Category Concepts can be organized into hierarchical categories Superordinate Categories are “umbrella” terms: E.G. “Fruit”
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From Concept to Category Concepts can be organized into hierarchical categories Superordinate Categories are “umbrella” terms: E.G. “Fruit” Basic Level Categories are more specific but not as specific as possible. These are the categories we learn first as children and the ones we use most as adults E.G. “Orange”
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From Concept to Category Concepts can be organized into hierarchical categories Superordinate Categories: “Fruit” Basic Level Categories: “Orange” Subordinate Categories are the most specific instance of a conceptual organization framework: E.G. “Blood Orange”
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Formal Concepts Defined according to a rigid set of rules E.G. “Female”
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Natural Concepts Concepts that do not need to be defined using formal rules There are “shades of gray,” depending on a person’s perspective and interpretation. Your book uses the example of classifying a tomato as either a vegetable or a fruit.
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What strategy do people use when using concepts to classify? Prototypes : Comparison between current instance under consideration and the most typical member of the category E.G. “Bird”—robin vs. penguin Exemplars : Appeals to an actual instance of a member of the category E.G. PGA Golfer: Zach Johnson
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Algorithm
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Ch. 7 Part 1 - Chapter 7 Cognition, Language and...

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