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study guide exam 3

study guide exam 3 - SLEEPwhy it is needed Growth hormone...

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SLEEP—why it is needed: Growth hormone peaks (growth, repair) memory consolidation re-sensitization of neurotransmitter receptors (norepinephrine, locus coreruleus “OFF”) REM sleep as we age (lessens) and throughout the night suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) o part of the hypothalamus receives input directly from retina o damage disruption for internal biological clock o eliminates synchronization of biorhythms to “zeitgebers” o SCN on a 25 hr schedule o Regulates melatonin release from the Pineal Gland EEG (used to define sleep stages) o slow-wave sleep (SWS)- deep sleep STAGES 3/4 o stage 2 (light sleep)- o REM (= paradoxical sleep because high levels of brain activity but virtual paralysis of skeletal muscles) o PGO waves- Pons-Geniculate-Occipital Waves Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis of dreaming o suggests that dreams do not have symbolic meaning, but are the byproduct of the brain's random firing of neural impulses during REM sleep Narcolepsy- frequent unexpected periods of extreme sleepiness during the day— 70% experience “instant onset” REM—many experience cataplexy (muscle weakness) triggered by strong emotions DEVELOPMENT Neurulation- development of the neural plate, neural crest, and neural tube neural tube-the neural crest when it rises on both sides and encloses anencephaly o cephalic end of neural tube does not close o missing major portions of the brain skull and scalp o often born without a forebrain spina bifida o caudal neural tube doesn’t close completely o range of severity and incapacitation varies greatly depending on level affected o incidence can be decreased by 70% with preconception and early pregnancy folic acid supplemation progenitor cells- “pleuripotent”—can be induced to become any of a variety of adult cell types—stem cell (debate) synaptogenesis- forming new synapses Freud’s Psychsexual Theory—focuses on instincts and unconscious motivations o oral stage—(birth to 1yr) libido is focused on the mouth as a source of pleasure obtaining oral gratification from a mother figure is critical to later development
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o anal stage—(1-3yrs) focused on the anus, and toilet training creates conflicts btw the child’s biological urges and the society’s demands o phallic stage—(3-6yrs) centers on the genitals. Resolution of the Oedipus or
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