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1101_Critical_Concepts_for_Final_Edited[1] - Critical...

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Critical Concepts for Final Exam (200/500 points) Chapter 11: Social Psychology Dissonance (490) o A state of mental discomfort experienced when one holds two or more inconsistent attitudes or beliefs o Cognitive Dissonance (CD) is intensified by performing actions that are incongruent with a person’s typical, positive self-concept. Assumptions of CD Theory Humans are motivated to maintain a consistent, favorable self- concept. We expect others to behave consistently. We expect the same of ourselves. Per the “pleasure principle,” people are motivated to seek pleasure and to avoid or eliminate discomfort. o Negative reinforcement! o A behavior that is significantly inconsistent with one’s own self-image, beliefs, et cetera. Psychological discomfort induced by the realization of this discrepancy. o Common CD-Reducing Strategies Change Your Behaviors To make them consistent with the dissonant cognition Change Your Beliefs/Attitudes To make them consistent with the dissonant behavior Use “Exception to the Rule” Thinking o Implications Human beings shun processing information in an unbiased fashion, particularly when the topic is one about which we are passionate. We selectively disregard information that would threaten our position. Attribution (494) o Fundamental Attribution Error o Actor/Observer Bias o Self-Serving Bias o In-Group Bias o Out-Group Bias o Addresses how we explain outcomes Who or what is the “agent of causation?” Who or what is responsible for your successes or your failures? o External Attributions Occur when a person appeals to external factors or forces to explain an outcome Most commonly used to rationalize/justify immoral behavior or poor performance. Immoral Behavior: Victim of circumstances reasoning “I was seduced.”
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Poor Performance Unusual or unfair conditions o The test was unfair, the book sucks, the professor can’t teach, et cetera o Internal Attributions Occur when a person appeals to internal factors or characteristics to explain an outcome Most commonly used to take credit for a success or a job well-done. Exceptional Performance “When you’re hot, you’re hot!” “Some people are born great!” o Influence Social psychologists maintain that we can influence people’s subsequent behaviors by encouraging them to make internal rather than external attributions. SBB’s Attribution Chain of Events: The world asks me, “Why?” I provide an attribution. My future behavior depends on the type of attribution I make. o Locus of Control: An individual’s pervasive tendency to attribute their circumstances to either internal or external forces.
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