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Unformatted text preview: 1 Ecology 1 Chapters 52 and 54 Overview: The Scope of Ecology Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment (term derived from Greek, oikos- place to live , logos – to study) These interactions determine distribution of organisms and their abundance Ecology reveals the richness of the biosphere Observation Hypothesis Quantify Manipulate Revise hypothesis Sham Cage Darwin - “Natural Historian” Fig. 52-3 Trough Pipe “Dry” “Wet” “Ambient” Walker Branch Watershed. Pipes and troughs used to move water between plots to study how forest responds to altered precipitation Fig. 52-2 Organismal ecology Population ecology Community ecology Ecosystem ecology Landscape ecology Global ecology The Scope of Ecological Research Ecologists work at levels ranging from individual organisms to the planet Organismal ecology studies how an organism’s structure, physiology, and (for animals) behavior meet environmental challenges Why do grey whales migrate? 2 Population ecology focuses on factors affecting how many individuals of a species live in an area. Analyzes the factors that affect population size and how and why it changes through time ( population is a group of individuals of the same species living in an area) What environmental factors influence the reproductive success of mussels ? Community ecology deals with the whole array of interacting species in a community. Examines how species interactions (predation and competition) affect community structure. ( community is a group of populations of different species in an area) Will hunting pigs on Santa Cruz Island save the foxes? Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling among the various biotic and abiotic components (ie. between organisms and environment) ( ecosystem is the community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which they interact) Will seeding the ocean with iron increase algal growth, absorb greenhouse gases and cool the planet? Landscape ecology deals with arrays of ecosystems and how they are arranged in a geographic region. Focuses on factors controlling flow of energy, materials, and organisms across ecosystems. ( landscape or seascape is a mosaic of connected ecosystems) Can a land corridor between Santa Monica Mountains to the Los Padres National Forest save SM cougars? Global ecology examines the influence of energy and materials on organisms across the biosphere. Examines how the regional exchange of energy and materials influences the function and distribution of life on earth ( biosphere is the global ecosystem, the sum of all the planet’s ecosystems) How do El Nino events affect ocean productivity?...
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- Fall '07
- Ecology, abiotic factors, Physical Light factors