Lecture 2 - ME 601 Manufacturing in Micro and Nanosystems...

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ME 601: Manufacturing in Micro- and Nanosystems Lecture 2: Photolithography Basics
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History of Lithography Originally developed for rapid printing of text or artwork onto paper by Bavarian author Alois Senefelder in 1796 Can be used to print inks onto any smooth surface (think screen printing of t-shirts) Uses chemical process to create an image: positive part of image is hydrophobic; ink and water phase separates and ink is preferentially adsorbed to positive part
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Optical Lithography Indirect method of surface patterning using light of different intensity, typically either completely light or completely dark Optical lithography <-> photolithography used to pattern micro- and nanoscale features, determines minimum feature size Basic process follows many of the same principles across full size range, but finer scale patterning requires several “tricks” to improve resolution Minimum feature size is continuously shrinking: 4-6 μm in 1970s, 1 μm in 1980s Current state-of-the-art is 32 nm, but may be possible to go even smaller Main production tool for both VLSI and NEMS/MEMS – workhorse!
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