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Lecture 12 - Nano-Bio imaging1 - MSE 803 NANOMATERIALS AND...

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MSE 803: NANOMATERIALS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY Weibo Cai , Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Radiology & Medical Physics [email protected] 265 MSE Building Spring 2010 Class 12 & 13: Molecular Imaging with Nanoparticles
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Definition of Molecular Imaging “the visualization, characterization and measurement of biological processes at the molecular and cellular levels in humans and other living systems” - Society of Nuclear Medicine Nonspecific Probes Targeted Probes Activatable Probes
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Molecular Imaging “Food Chain” Highly interdisciplinary Cell/molecular biology Chemistry/radiochemistry Radiology Medical physics Pharmacology Medicine Engineering Mathematics Material science Computer science
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Molecular Imaging Targets 3 billion bps 25,000 genes
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mAb, Fragments Peptides Drugs & Ligands Hormones Receptor Mapping 18 F-FDG GLUT Hexokinase DNA RNA DNA Reporter Gene (PET, Optical, MRI) RNA Reporter Gene DNA Synthesis mRNA AAT AA Transport or Protein Synthesis Metabolism Enzyme Activity Inhibition, Conc. Synthesis Molecular Imaging Targets Oligo mRNA Binding Internalization Protein Intracellular Protein
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Small Animal Molecular Imaging Cai & Chen, Front Biosci, 2007. microMRI Ultrasound Optical microSPECT microPET
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Roles of Molecular Imaging Early Diagnosis Monitoring therapeutic efficacy Facilitate drug development Target Identification Target Validation Lead Identification Lead Optimization Phase I Trial Phase III Trial Phase II Trial FDA Approval 3-6.5 Years 1.5 Years 2 Years 3.5 Years 1.5 Years Molecular Imaging 10-15 years 1 Billion Dollars Cai et al., Mol Cancer Ther, 2006.
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Molecular Imaging Agent Label Linker Carrier Target PET Length Cell SPECT Flexibility Virus MRI Hydrophilicity Particle Ultrasound Charge Antibody Optical Protein Peptide Small Molecule
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Optical Scanner Preclinical Clinical
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Fluorescence Absorption of a photon triggers the emission of another photon at a longer wavelength The difference between the excitation wavelength and the emission wavelength is called Stokes shift Fluorescent Minerals
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Mechanism of Fluorescence Excitation Vibrational relaxation Emission
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Three Types of Fluorophores 2 - 3 nm 12 nm CdSe/CdTe Organic Dye GFP QD705 Core 9 nm
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Organic Fluorescent Dyes Cy5.5 IRDye 800 DAPI Easy to conjugate Prone to photo bleaching Hard to multiplex
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Quantum Dot (QD) • Wide range of absorption • Narrow emission spectrum • High quantum yield • High extinction coefficient • Little photo bleaching • Perfect for multiplexing
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It All Started in 1998… Dual-labeled mouse 3T3 fibroblasts Bruchez et al., Science, 1998.
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  • Spring '10
  • Samuel
  • Magnetic resonance imaging, Medical imaging, quantum dots, Carbon nanotube, Molecular Imaging, Nat Biotechnol

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