Lecture 14 - Section 1 Review

Lecture 14 - Section 1 Review - MSE 803: N ANOMATERIALS AND...

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Unformatted text preview: MSE 803: N ANOMATERIALS AND N ANOTECHNOLOGY Professor Xudong Wang 213 MSE Building Spring 2010 Class Review Section I from Yacaman et al. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19 , 1091(2001) Nano: a length scale What is Nano? What are Nanomaterials? Structures and/or materials with at least one dimension one to several hundred nanometers (nm) in size Material properties similar from bulk to micrometer range, however very different material properties emerge when dimensions are reduced further to the nm scale For example: Lower melting points and change in lattice constants Bulk semiconductors become insulators at nanoscale and exhibit new electronic and optical properties Metals exhibit plasmonic resonances and other phenomena Ferroelectrics and ferromagnetism lose their properties at nm dimensions New catalytic properties can emerge Nanotechnology is the creation and utilization of materials, devices, and systems through the control of matter on the nanometer-length scale, that is, at the level of atoms, molecules, supermolecular structures, and characteristic dimension measured in nanometers (1 100 nm). Nanotechnology is about materials and systems that can be rationally designed to exhibit novel, unique and significantly improved physical, chemical, and biological properties, phenomena, and processes because of their size. Definition of Nanotechnology Transmission electron microscope image of a typical black carbon chain collected in a smoke plume. Small is different! But small is not necessary nanotechnology! Nanotechnology: Much More Than Just Small What Does Nanotechnology Do?-6- Tools: electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy: eyes + hands Technology and industry need: microelectronics meets challenge Discovery of novel structures, nanocrystals, nanotubes, nanobelts New phenomena and properties: size induced quantum phenomena New understanding: powerful computer simulations and modeling Nanotechnology: Why Now? Nanomaterial Systems Nanomaterials are classified by its characteristic dimensions that are NOT in the scale of 1-100 nm. 0D nanostructures: quantum dots, nanoparticles, etc. 1D nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes, nanobelts, nanorods, etc. 2D nanostructures: nanosheet, nanowall, thin film, etc. Hetero-Nanostructures Hetero-component nanostructures p-n junctions Quantum wells Hetero-morphology nanostructures p-n Si core-shell nanowire for photovoltaic Si/SiGe superlattice nanowire for LEDs or lasers Nanofabrication Techniques Top down vs. Bottom up Top-down techniques take a bulk material, machine it, modify it into the desired shape and product Classic example is manufacturing of integrated circuits Bottom-up techniques build something from basic materials Assembling from the atoms/molecules up Not completely proven in manufacturing yet Quantum Dots Nanowire Nanodevices Nano-Bio Renewable Energy N OVEL A PPLICATIONS OF N ANOMATERIALS AND N ANODEVICES...
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Lecture 14 - Section 1 Review - MSE 803: N ANOMATERIALS AND...

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