_12_13Fat2010 - Sample questions from athletes: Will...

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Dietary Fat and Athletes As low as it can go? Or are there any benefits to inclusion of fat in the diet? Sample questions from athletes: ± Will carnitine supplements help me burn more fat? ± I heard I should be training with low muscle glycogen to “train” my body to use more fat. Does this work? ± I need to lose fat; are there food that help me burn fat? Sample info from website on “Foods that help you burn fat” ± http://www.livestrong.com/article/30786- foods-burn-fat-exercising/ What is the role of fat for athletes? ± As a fuel-- from dietary TG or from stored TG in fat cells (>100,000 kcal) or muscle (~2500 kcal) – Theoretically enough to fuel running > 1300 km ± Makes sense that our body will attempt to Makes sense that our body will attempt to use fat whenever it can – It has much more energy stored as fat than carb It is a very different situation than for carbohydrate & athletes No one will “run out of” fat during exercise Athletes, instead, will attempt more often to: ± Increase use of fat ± Use dietary manipulations (e.g. low carb) ± Supplements ± Drugs to increase fat use – “Spare” body carbohydrate to delay fatigue – Reduce body fat if that is a goal
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FAT and the Athlete ± Background – Average and recommended intake – Use with exercise Types ± Fatty acids ± Triglycerides ± Cholesterol ± Phospholipids Saturated, Monounsaturated, and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Figure 6.2 Fatty Acid cis and tran s Formations Figure 6.3 Omega-3, -6, and -9 Fatty Acids Figure 6.4 Structure of Triglycerides Figure 6.5 The fatty acids in the TG can be of multiple type
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Fatty Acid Distribution in Selected Foods Figure 6.6 Structure of Sterols Figure 6.7 Sterols and Phospholipids ± Sterols have a ring structure – Cholesterol – Vitamin D – Sex hormones ± Cholesterol – Only found in animal foods – Also manufactured in the body ± Phospholipids – Similar in structure to triglycerides – Contain phosphate – Component of cell membranes Fats and Health ± From a health perspective – Intake of certain fats may reduce heart disease risk » Omega-3 fatty acids Intake of certain fats may increase heart – Intake of certain fats may increase heart disease risk » Saturated fatty acids » Trans fats ± Athletes should take these issues into account just like everyone else (even though not likely an influence on performance) Goals for type of dietary fats American Dietetic Association 1. Total fat 20-35% of energy 2. Keep saturated < 10% and trans fats as low as possible 3. Polyunsaturated fats 3-10% of total energy --Long chain omega-3 fats 500 mg/d -4. Monounsaturated fats make up remainder of dietary fat In order to know if some strategy is likely to boost fat use, need to understand absorption & metabolism
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Absorption of Fats ± Most fatty acids digested to smaller length chains (short chains can pass through ‘as is’) ± Enter mucosal cells via passive diffusion
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This note was uploaded on 03/23/2010 for the course HNFE 4174 taught by Professor Rankin during the Spring '10 term at Virginia Tech.

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_12_13Fat2010 - Sample questions from athletes: Will...

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