03 Transcription factors

03 Transcription factors - Transcription Factors and...

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Transcription Factors and Metabolic Regulation Metabolic Nutrition Fall 2009
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Terms Transcription – copying DNA by RNA polymerase into messenger RNA (mRNA) Factor – A substance, such as a protein, that contributes to the cause of a specific biochemical reaction or bodily process Transcriptional regulation – controlling the rate of gene transcription by helping or hindering RNA polymerase binding to DNA Upregulation, activation, or promotion – increase the rate of gene transcription Downregulation, repression, or suppression – decrease the rate of gene transcription Co-activator – a protein which works with transcription factors to increase rate of transcription Co-repressor – a protein which works with transcription factors to decrease rate of gene transcription
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How do they work (mechanism)? Stabilize or block the binding of RNA polymerase to DNA Catalyze the acylation or deacylation of DNA Directly or recruit other proteins with this catalytic activity Histone acetyltransferase activity – acetylate DNA which weakens the association of DNA with histones and make DNA more accessible to transcription (i.e., up regulation) Histone deacetylase activity – deacetylate DNA which strengths association between DNA and histones making DNA less accessible to transcription (i.e., down regulation) Recruit co-activator or co-repressor proteins to the transcription factor-DNA complex.
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Controls of transcription factors Development Important in multicellular organisms Give me an example?? Body pattern formation Transcription factor encoded by the Sex Determining Region Y Skeletal muscle differentiation Response to intercellular signals Cells communicate with each other by releasing molecules that produce signaling cascades Estrogen and insulin Response to environment As a result of external stimuli Hypoxia Heat Diet (glucose and lipids) Cell cycle control Control life span of a cell Oncogenes Tumor repressors Cell growth apoptosis In a perfect scenario, control keeps things happening at the correct time and place
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The important metabolic regulators Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) Carbohydrate response element binding proteins (ChREBP) Liver X receptors (LXRs) And many, many more……
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Points to consider for this class Tissue specificity Physiological functions Ligands What do I mean by this? Pharmacological significance
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PPARs Three isoforms known to date PPAR α PPAR / β δ PPAR γ PPAR α Enriched in tissues with a high capacity for fatty acid oxidation Heart, slow/red skeletal muscle, brown adipose tissue, and liver
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PPARs PPAR α Transcriptionally regulates genes associated with: Fatty acid import/uptake into the cell - INCREASE Fatty acid oxidation - INCREASE Triacylglycerol synthesis – INCREASE
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This note was uploaded on 03/23/2010 for the course HNFE 3025 taught by Professor Mwhulver during the Spring '10 term at Virginia Tech.

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03 Transcription factors - Transcription Factors and...

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