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07 Carbohdrates - Types and Structure

07 Carbohdrates - Types and Structure - Carbohydrates Types...

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Carbohydrates: Types and Structures HNFE 3025 Fall 2009
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Carbohydrates (CHO) Polyhydroxy aldehydes (aldoses) or ketones (ketoses) – or derivatives of aldoses and ketoses Made from carbon , oxygen, and hydrogen The O-H bond is a polar bond and multiple hydroxy groups means CHO interact well with water CHO are found free or associated with other macronutrients Proteins (glycoproteins) Lipids (glycolipids) CHO are described by their functional group and based on the number of C atoms Aldopentose (5-carbon aldose) Ketohexose (6-carbon ketose) 2
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Aldoses 3
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Ketoses 4
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Kinds of Carbohydrates Two basic categories Simple carbohydrates Monosaccharides – simplest ex. - ribose, glucose, galactose, fructose Disaccharides – two monosaccharides ex. - maltose, sucrose, lactose Complex carbohydrates Oligosaccharides – 3-10 saccharide units ex. - indigestible plant polysaccharides Polysaccharides – more than 10 saccharide units ex. - starch, glycogen 5
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Categories 6 Fig. 3-1, p. 64 Ribose
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Simple Carbohydrates Steroisomerism Chiral carbon - have 4 different atoms or groups attached to them D vs. L Configuration Indicated by the OH group with the highest numbered chiral carbon D – Right L – Left Most enzymes of CHO digestion are stereospecific for D sugars 7
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Ring Structures Sugars with 5 or more carbons are more stable in a cyclic or ring form In general, monosaccharides do not exist in an open chain form in solution OH group on the highest numbered chiral carbon interacts with the carbonyl on C1 (aldose) or C2 (ketose) producing a hemiacetal (pyranose) or hemiketal (furanose) structure Forming a ring, introduces a new asymmetric (chiral) center known as the anomeric carbon. α and β configurations Indicated by the anomeric hydroxyl group » α – right or below ring » β – left or above ring 8
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9 Table 3-1, p. 66
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Ring Structures for D-Glucose, D-Galactose, D-Ribose and D-Fructose 10 β-D-glucopyranose β-D-galactopyranose 1 6
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