11 Carbohdrates - Shuttles and PPP

11 Carbohdrates - Shuttles and PPP - Carbohydrates:...

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Carbohydrates: Shuttles Pentose Phosphate Pathway HNFE 3025 Fall 2009
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Cytosolic NADH Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is either in NAD + (oxidized) or NADH (reduced) form NADH is a reducing equivalent Inner membrane of mitochondria is impermeable to NADH and NAD + NADH must be shuttled across the membrane to utilize the electrons to produce ATP (oxidative phosphorylation) Glycerol 3-phosphate shuttle (FAD-linked) Malate-aspartate shuttle (NAD-linked) [NADH] in cytosol << [NADH] in matrix Ratio of [NADH]/[NAD + ] or redox state differs between cytosol and matrix Cytosol: redox state highly oxidized ~0.005 Matrix: redox is more reduced state ~ 0.5 2
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Cytosolic NADH 3
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Glycerol 3-Phosphate Shuttle Transfers electrons from cytosolic NADH to FAD in mitochondria to produce FADH 2 NADH formed from glyceraldehyde 3-P DH reaction FAD in Complex II of ETC Maximum generation of 1.5 ATP • FADH 2 yields 1.5 ATP There is no net consumption or production of the metabolites – glycerol 3-P and dihydroxyacetone
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11 Carbohdrates - Shuttles and PPP - Carbohydrates:...

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