Lecture 1 Water Properties

Lecture 1 Water Properties - Properties of water common yet...

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Properties of water common, yet uncommon common: everywhere, in everything uncommon: unique, unusual properties
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Properties of water molecular structure (polar molecule) exceptional solvent high surface tension high specific heat and latent heats
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Properties of water ice (solid) water vapor (gas) water (liquid) unique
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Molecular structure Chemical formula: H 2 O Water is a molecule made of three atoms , two of the element , hydrogen, and one of the element, oxygen.
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Molecular structure Ancient Greeks: water as one of the 4 basic elements Late 1700’s: water as a compound composed of hydrogen and oxygen (Watt, Cavendish, Priestly, Lavoisier) How was this scientific discovery made?
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Molecular structure The basic chemical reaction: H 2 O H 2 O 2 + What’s wrong with this equation? How did Watt et al. get the reaction to go? 2H 2 O 2H 2 O 2 + Hindenberg disaster, 1937 ignition
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Molecular structure How can we get the reverse reaction to go? 2H 2 O 2H 2 O 2 + 2H 2 O 2H 2 O 2 + A reversible reaction: 2H 2 O 2H 2 O 2 + + energy energy +
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Looking deeper…. Hydrogen atom nucleus orbital (energy level) (room for 1 more!) electron (-) proton (+) 1 P e
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Hydrogen atom e vacancy highly reactive (why elemental 2 X 1 P Looking deeper….
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first orbital filled Oxygen atom vacancy- why elemental oxygen occurs as O 2 gas 8 P 8 N X X e e e e e e e e neutron
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Water molecule shared electrons (covalent bond) Hydrogen Oxygen
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Water molecule + -- - more negative more positive polarity Water is a polar molecule
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Consequences of polarity the best solvent for salts (NaCl Na + + Cl - ) hydrogen bonding 2
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+ - Hydrogen Bonding ( ) + + - water molecules tend to stick together
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Consequences of hydrogen bonding high surface tension (cohesion, adhesion) high latent heat (more later)
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Lecture 1 Water Properties - Properties of water common yet...

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