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TempStratification - Temperature and Density Stratification...

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Temperature and Density Stratification density of water (temperature, salinity) depth profiles (physical structure, lakes) seasonality (stratification and mixing, lakes) contour maps of temperature (lakes, oceans) temperature, salinity and density of the oceans
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Density of Water definition: mass (g) per unit volume (ml) How much does a given volume of water weigh?
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Density of Water definition: mass (g) per unit volume (ml) Volume (V) 1 cm 1 cm 1 cm V = 1 cm 3 = 1 ml
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Density of Water What if… 10 cm 10 cm 10 cm Volume (V)
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density of pure water ( no dissolved substances ) at 4°C : 1 g/cm 3 or 1 g/ml or 1 g ml -1 metric system based on properties of water Why the specifications about dissolved substances and temperature? Density of Water
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Effect of temperature on water density What do we expect based on on our understanding of heat and the atmosphere ? Hint: heat is kinetic energy (motion, vibration)
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(mondo bizarro: need 2 graphs to illustrate it!) Density (g/ml) Temperature (°C) water ice crystalline structure of ice note the scale Effect of temperature on water density
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Ice floats!
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(mondo bizarro: need 2 graphs to illustrate it!) Density (g/ml) Temperature (°C) water ice note the scale Effect of temperature on water density
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note the scale Density (g/ml) Temperature (°C) 4 0 - 4°C density increases (unexpected) 4 - 100°C: density decreases (expected) note how the curve bends downward It’s non-linear! Effect of temperature on water density
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solid H 2 O is much less dense than liquid H 2 O (weird, but good for the fish!) Re-cap warm water is less dense than cold water (from 4 - 100°C) the effect of temperature (T) on density (D) is much greater in tropical waters (D vs T is non-linear) Effect of temperature on water density freshwater is densest at 4°C
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The dynamics of heat in water bodies How does heat get into and out of a body of water? radiation conduction convection change over time and space
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The dynamics of heat in water bodies How does heat get into and out of a body of water? solar energy exciting water molecules (surface heating) radiation contact with air or water of different temperature (surface heating, cooling) conduction movements of water resulting from changes in density (vertical, deep circulation) convection
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The dynamics of heat in water bodies radiation energy transfer most energy transfer occurs near the surface water column
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The dynamics of heat in water bodies conduction cool warm cooler air cool warm examples warmer air
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The dynamics of heat in water bodies convection cool warm warmer air hot day no convection in water column examples
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