Water and the Environment Study Guide

Water and the Environment Study Guide - Water and the...

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Water and the Environment Study Guide Global Hydrologic Cycle and Global Energy 1) Condensation - the process of water changing from a vapor to a liquid. 2) Precipitation- is water being released from clouds as rain, sleet, snow, or hail. 3) Evaporation- occurs when radiant energy from the sun heats water, causing the water molecules to become so active that some of them rise into the atmosphere as vapor. 4) Evapotranspiration - is water evaporating from the ground and transpiration by plants. Evapotranspiration is also a way water vapor re-enters the atmosphere. 5) Infiltration- portion of the precipitation that reaches the Earth's surface seeps into the ground through this process. The more openings in the surface (cracks, pores, joints), the more infiltration occurs. 6) Runoff- Precipitation that reaches the surface of the Earth but does not infiltrate the soil 7) Aquifer- Porous layer of soil which becomes saturated with water 8) Aquitard- a zone within the earth that restricts the flow of groundwater from one aquifer to another Aquitards are comprised of layers of either clay or non-porous rock. 9) Water Table- Aquifer which has water entering it from land above it. Top layer of saturated soil 10) Vadose Zone - Unsaturated soil above Water Table 11) Confined Aquifer - Aquifer that is bounded on top and below by impervious rock or soil 12) Unconfined Aquifer - Aquifer which has water entering it from land above it 13) Atmospheric Advection - Water in atmosphere (clouds) is transported by wind from over sea to over land, and over land to over sea. 14) Convection- upward flowing air currents causing a cloud to form 15) Recharge- a hydrologic process where water moves downward from surface water to groundwater 16) Solar radiation- the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun 17) Visible light- The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye 18) UV light- UV light is found in sunlight and is emitted by electric arcs and specialized lights such as black lights
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19) Infrared light- Its wavelength is longer (and the frequency lower) than that of visible ligh t What is convection and what is it’s relationship to condensation and clouds? Where does water beading on a cold pop can come from? Water vapor from air is hitting the cold surface and condensing How does water re-enter the atmosphere? Water that is on the surfaces will evaporate into the atmosphere. This can be water in a puddle, a pond, a river and the ocean. A second way water vapor moves into the atmosphere is through transpiration. Which way is water transported due to atmospheric advection? What is the similarity and difference between runoff and infiltration? Does more or less water travel to the atmosphere each year than is in the atmosphere? By about how
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Water and the Environment Study Guide - Water and the...

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