lecture_8 - Race and Inequality Race and Inequality ISS 215...

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Unformatted text preview: Race and Inequality Race and Inequality ISS 215 Lecture 8 Outline Outline A. What is Race? B. Races around the Globe C. Races in the U.S. and Future Trends D. Historical Background E. Theoretical Discussion F. Consequences A. What is Race? A. Social creation of arbitrary grouping of individuals in a society based on the color of their skin B. Races around the Globe 1. White? 2. Black? 3. Asian? C.. Races in the U.S. and C Future Trends Race/Ethnicity White Black Hispanic Asian Native Other 1980 (%) 79.8 11.5 6.4 1.6 0.6 0.1 1990 (%) 75.6 11.7 9.0 2.8 0.7 0.1 2000 (%) 69.1 12.1 12.5 3.7 0.7 1.8 (Population Reference Bureau 2002) D. Historical Background D. Historical Background 1. Early Encounters with Native Americans a. Ethnocentrism Labeling of Natives as Savages, Animalistic, and Heathens b. Cooperation and relative equality changed to domination c. Acquisition of Native Land d. Natives pushed to reservations e. Native Americans, their socioeconomic conditions D. Historical Background, continued D. Historical Background, continued 2. Arrival of Blacks a. Resistance from Native Americans b. 1500­1850 c. 1619: A Dutch ship brought 20 Africans to Jamestown, Virginia d. Need for plantations e. 10 Million Africans were sold in Africa, but only half of them arrived in the U.S. alive (Franklin, 1967) f. Labeling of blacks as savages and animalistic g. Treatment by the masters was extremely cruel with no legal rights h. Outlawed in 1808, but until 1850, 10% of American families owned slaves D. Historical Background, continued D. Historical Background, continued 3. Hispanics in America a. In 1848 the United States conquered and bought the areas where we have Texas, California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado from Mexico b. Most Mexicans, however, came to the U.S. during the 20th century as farm labor c. Other Hispanics include: Puerto Ricans, Cubans, and a small percentage from other Spanish­speaking areas d. Economic Conditions D. Historical Background, continued D. Historical Background, continued 4. Asians in America a. Chinese b. Filipinos c. Japanese d. Indian and Pakistanis e. Koreans Immigration Act of 1990 Immigration Act of 1990 Enacted by the Bush Government 1. Total quota was increased from 540,000 to 700,000 per year 2. In 1995 this quota will be reduced to 675,000 per year 3. 140,000 visas per year for special occupation al groups (scientists, professors, doctors, engineers, etc.) 4. 10,000 visas per year for individuals who can invest 500,000 dollars into the U.S. 5. Special quota was set aside for under­ represented countries. For example, 16,000 visas are set aside for persons from Ireland Immigration Act of 1990 Immigration Act of 1990 (continued) E. Theoretical Discussion E. Theoretical Discussion 1. Minority • • • • • Disadvantaged Socially visible Sense of common affinity Placed in Minority category by others Friends and spouse from the same groups 2. Prejudice Rigid, negative, and false generalizations about an entire category of people E. Theoretical Discussion (continued) E. Theoretical Discussion (continued) 3. Racism Systematic and institutionalized discrimination against one or more races 4. Pluralism A state in which racial and ethnic minorities are distinct but have social parity E. Theoretical Discussion (continued) E. Theoretical Discussion (continued) 5. Acculturation Learning of the language, values, norms, and skills of a majority population 6. Assimilation Gradual adoption of culture of larger group leading to a complete loss of distinct racial identity E. Theoretical Discussion (continued) E. Theoretical Discussion (continued) 7. Segregation Physical and social separation of certain categories of people 8. Genocide Systematic annihilation of one category of people by another E. Theoretical Discussion (continued) E. Theoretical Discussion (continued) Theories of Prejudice A. Scapegoat Theory The feelings of frustration and rage against injustices and oppression are directed to minorities E. Theoretical Discussion (continued) E. Theoretical Discussion (continued) Theories of Prejudice B. Authoritarian Personality 1. 2. 3. Intolerant to one and all minorities Very rigid to conventional cultural values Competition and Hierarchy are considered Natural 4. No flexibility (Adorno 1950) E. Theoretical Discussion (continued) E. Theoretical Discussion (continued) Theories of Prejudice C. Cultural Theory 1. Culture of Prejudice 2. English, Canadian, and Scottish v. French, German, Swedes, Dutch, African, and Asians (Bogardus 1968) D. Conflict Theory 1. 2. 3. Prejudice and economic power Oppression Elites encourage prejudice to divide the working class E. Theoretical Discussion (continued) E. Theoretical Discussion (continued) Theories of Racial and Ethnic Inequality A. The Caste Analysis of Race Relations 1. The boundaries of race are permanent 2. Education and income cannot bridge the gap B. Domination Theory 1. 2. 3. Noel’s Theory of Ethnic Stratification Internal Colonialism Class based explanation F. Consequences F. Consequences 1. Poverty 2. Hunger 3. Crime “All men are born equal. I advance it as a suspicion only, that the Blacks, whether originally a distinct race or made distinct by time and circumstances, are inferior to the Whites in the endowments both of body and mind.” ~Thomas Jefferson ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/23/2010 for the course ISS 215 taught by Professor Lang during the Spring '06 term at Michigan State University.

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