Lecture 7 - ARCH 106 Materials of Construc6on...

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Unformatted text preview: ARCH 106 Materials of Construc6on Masonry Today’s Agenda •  Essence of Lecture 06 in a Nutshell •  Types of Masonry Walls •  Composite Masonry Wall •  Special Problems in Masonry Construc?on •  Midterm 2 Last Week’s Quiz What is remarkable for the structural skeleton of the museum? Every member was different What is an example for the use of flat stock steel at the Bilbao Guggenheim Museum? Richard Serra Sculpture What structure shown in the movie uses the largest structural steel members? Bridge next to the museum THE CONCEPT OF LIGHT Gauge STEEL CONSTRUCTION Light Gauge Steel Framing Members •  Steel components are cold ­rolled from steel sheet. •  Cold ­forming increases metal strength. •  Members are essen?ally noncombus?ble equivalents of wood light frame construc?on. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. LIGHT GAUGE STEEL CONSTRUCTION Light Gauge Steel Compared to Light Wood Framing •  Advantages –  Like wood light framing: versa?le, flexible, simple to construct –  Noncombus?ble and immune to insect a[ack –  Dimensionally stable, with consistent material proper?es –  Lighter weight •  Disadvantages –  Members require more frequent bracing –  Readily conducts heat and requires extra a[en?on to elimina?ng thermal bridging effects –  Suscep?ble to corrosion Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. THE MATERIAL STEEL Greater propor?ons of carbon generally increase the hardness and bri[leness of the resul?ng iron alloy. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. THE MATERIAL STEEL Rollers Web Flange Tubular Steel Pipe (extruded) Flat Stock Hot Blanks Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. DETAILS OF STEEL FRAMING Stabilizing the Building Frame •  The rectangular geometry of the building frame must be made stable against lateral forces by one of three methods:  ­diagonal bracing  ­moment ­resis?ng frame  ­and shear walls Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. DETAILS OF STEEL FRAMING Shear Connec?on Moment Connec?on Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. THE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS Fireproofing materials •  Concrete •  Plaster •  Gypsum wallboard •  Spray ­applied insula?on •  Loose insula?on within sheet metal column cover •  Water ­filled columns (e.g., U.S. Steel Building, Pi[sburgh) Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. 10 Masonry Wall Construction TYPES OF MASONRY WALLS Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. TYPES OF MASONRY WALLS Structural/ Reinforced Veneer Unreinforced Grout w/ reinforcing Masonry Veneer ­ non structural Structural ?es Structural Wall Masonry ?e / no steel Masonry Masonry FOUNDATION Walls In Sec6on SPANNING SYSTEMS FOR MASONRY BEARING WALL CONSTRUCTION Tradi?onal Masonry Load ­bearing Wall Construc?on • Light wood joists bearing on a tradi?onal solid brick masonry wall • Note the shallow arch construc?on used to span window openings. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. TYPES OF MASONRY WALLS Following the 2004 San Simeon Earthquake, the City of San Luis Obispo enacted legislaDon requiring all unreinforced masonry buildings to undergo seismic retrofiFng. Over the course of the last five years, this has resulted in major construcDon work downtown, as much of the city’s oldest building stock was quite unsafe. TYPES OF MASONRY WALLS Masonry Wall Bending in Seismic Event •  Movement of the Ground causes horizontal rota?on of building founda?on •  Iner?a of upper building weight causes contrary forces on masonry wall •  Structural integrity of masonry against tension limited •  Weight of the building bends wall SPANNING SYSTEMS FOR MASONRY BEARING WALL CONSTRUCTION Tradi?onal Masonry Loadbearing Wall Construc?on •  Tradi?onal masonry structures are under ­ reinforced by contemporary standards and ohen must be structurally upgraded. •  Right: Steel straps and perimeter steel angles ?e the floor to the exterior wall to improve the building's ability to transfer seismic loads from the unreinforced masonry walls, to the structural frame. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. SPANNING SYSTEMS FOR MASONRY BEARING WALL CONSTRUCTION Tradi?onal Masonry Loadbearing Wall Construc?on •  The floors and roofs are ?ed to new, structural steel framing that is strategically inserted into the building and which can carry the seismic loads securely to the founda?on. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. TYPES OF MASONRY WALLS Composite Masonry Walls •  Mul?wythe –  Outer wythe of stone, face brick, or other durable masonry material –  Inner wythes of less expensive CMU or clay units which do not require the same level of durability or finish appearance •  Solid ­ ­no internal cavity –  Space between wythes is filled with mortar •  Wythes are bonded with: –  Header units (in tradi?onal construc?on) –  Metal ?es or reinforcing (right) CMU=Concrete Masonry Unit Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. TYPES OF MASONRY WALLS Masonry Cavity Walls •  Greater resistance to water penetra?on than solid or composite walls •  Mul?wythe •  A con?nuous air space between wythes acts as an internal drainage plane. •  Water that penetrates the outer wythe runs down the cavity and then is drained back to the exterior. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. TYPES OF MASONRY WALLS Masonry Cavity Walls •  Wall Des or veneer Des, made of corrosion resistant metal, span the cavity and allow the inner wythe to provide lateral support to the, usually thinner, outer wythe. –  Stainless steel: longest las?ng –  Galvanized (zinc ­coated) steel: less expensive •  Wall ?es come in a great variety of configura?ons. In this illustra?on the ?es also serve to hold rigid insula?on boards close against the inner wythe. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. TYPES OF MASONRY WALLS Masonry Cavity Walls •  Flashings: Con?nuous waterproof membranes that intercept water in the cavity and redirect it to the exterior •  Weep holes: Allow water to drain out from wall •  Damp ­proofing: Water ­ repellent coa?ngs applied to the face of the inner wythe to provide addi?onal resistance to water penetra?on •  Right: The masDc air barrier also serves as the water ­repellent coa?ng. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. TYPES OF MASONRY WALLS Masonry Cavity Walls •  The minimum recommended cavity depth is 2 inches, to allow space for masons to keep the cavity clear of mortar droppings during construc?on. •  Water ­resistant rigid insula?on boards can be inserted into the cavity. But a minimum of 1 inch of clear airspace should be preserved. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. TYPES OF MASONRY WALLS Masonry Loadbearing Walls •  Carry gravity loads from other parts of the building structure (adjacent floors and roof) •  In modern construc?on, almost always reinforced –  Greater strength –  Much improved resistance to seismic forces •  May be composite or cavity wall construc?on –  In loadbearing cavity walls, the inner wythe is usually the loadbearing wythe and the outer wythe or veneer is nonstructural. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. 10 Masonry Wall Construction SPANNING SYSTEMS FOR MASONRY BEARING WALL CONSTRUCTION Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. SPANNING SYSTEMS FOR MASONRY BEARING WALL CONSTRUCTION Ordinary Construc?on •  Light wood frame interior structure, with noncombus?ble masonry exterior walls •  Right: –  Cavity wall –  Loadbearing –  Reinforced CMU interior wythe –  Brick exterior veneer Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. SPANNING SYSTEMS FOR MASONRY BEARING WALL CONSTRUCTION Mill Construc?on •  Heavy ?mber interior structure, with noncombus?ble masonry exterior walls •  Mill construc?on is considered more fire ­ resistant than ordinary construc?on because the heavy ?mbers are slower burning than the thinner framing members of ordinary construc?on. Fire cut beam Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. SPANNING SYSTEMS FOR MASONRY BEARING WALL CONSTRUCTION Steel and Concrete Decks with Masonry Bearing Walls •  Open ­web steel joists, corrugated steel decking, and concrete floor slabs with masonry bearing walls •  OWSJs are well suited to masonry loadbearing construc?on because of their rela?vely close spacing which imposes a more uniform load on the masonry wall. •  With structural steel framing at greater spacings, extra reinforcing or enlarged masonry piers may be required to carry the greater concentrated loads at bearing points. •  Masonry walls are good for linear loads, not for concentrated point loads Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. SPANNING SYSTEMS FOR MASONRY BEARING WALL CONSTRUCTION Steel and Concrete Decks with Masonry Bearing Walls •  Precast concrete hollow core slabs with cast ­in ­place concrete topping •  The wall in this example is single ­ wythe, fully grouted, reinforced CMU bearing wall. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. 10 Masonry Wall Construction DETAILING MASONRY WALLS Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. DETAILNG MASONRY WALLS Flashings and Drainage •  Flashings are built into masonry walls to intercept water that penetrates the wall and direct the water back to the exterior. •  Common materials include various metals, synthe?c rubber or bituminous membranes, and plas?cs. •  Materials should be chosen with longevity in mind— internal flashings must last as long as the wall. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. DETAILNG MASONRY WALLS Flashings and Drainage: Metal Flashings •  Most expensive and most durable •  Stainless steel (boQom) •  Copper (middle) –  Long ­las?ng –  Non ­staining –  S?ffer and harder to form than copper –  Long ­las?ng –  Runoff from flashing can cause staining by copper oxides –  Soher and more easily formed than stainless steel •  Galvanized (zinc ­coated) steel (top) •  Aluminum (not shown) –  Less expensive –  Less durable –  Not recommended for permanent internal flashings –  OK for external, replaceable flashings –  Not recommended for masonry walls because this metal reacts chemically with the highly alkaline mortar Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. DETAILNG MASONRY WALLS Flashings and Drainage: Membrane Flashings •  Self ­adhering bituminous membranes (right) –  Polymer ­modified bitumens laminated to plas?c backings –  Self ­s?cking to substrate –  Less expensive and easier to install than metal flashings –  Have some capacity to self ­ seal around penetra?ons –  Cannot span cavi?es or other significant gaps without backup metal support Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. DETAILNG MASONRY WALLS Flashings and Drainage: Membrane Flashings •  EPDM (right) –  Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer –  Synthe?c rubber –  Long ­las?ng –  Easy to install •  Other plas?cs –  May be vulnerable to tearing or other deteriora?on •  Membrane flashings cannot be permanently exposed to sunlight. They are ohen combined with metal where flashings must project from the wall. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. DETAILNG MASONRY WALLS Flashings and Drainage: Composite Flashings •  Copper or other metals laminated with heavy paper, plas?c film, or other materials •  Material costs are less than all ­metal flashings because the thinner metal sheets are used. •  The lamina?ng layers provide added strength, compensa?ng for the thinner sheet metal. •  Right: Copper laminated with asphalt ­saturated glass fabric Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. DETAILNG MASONRY WALLS Flashings and Drainage: Joining and Sealing Flashings •  Where flashing sec?ons meet, the joints must be made water?ght. •  Metals are most permanently joined and sealed by soldering or welding. Sealing with mas?cs is less expensive, but also less permanent. •  Membrane and composite flashings are sealed with mas?cs (right) or adhesive sealants. •  Self ­adhering flashings are lapped and self ­adhered to form a water?ght seal. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. DETAILNG MASONRY WALLS Flashings and Drainage: Flashing Loca?ons •  A through ­wall (internal) flashing installed underneath the top ­of ­ wall coping units intercepts water that passes between joints of those units. •  An external flashing, in this case a counterflashing, is installed on the back of the parapet to prevent water from passing behind and under the roof membrane termina?on. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. DETAILNG MASONRY WALLS Flashings and Drainage: Flashing Loca?ons •  Through ­wall flashings should be installed at all interrup?ons in the cavity. •  A flashing above a wall opening intercepts water in the cavity and prevents it from spilling into the opening. •  A flashing below a wall opening intercepts water that enters around the opening and keeps it out of the wall. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. DETAILNG MASONRY WALLS Flashings and Drainage: Flashing Loca?ons •  Where a metal angle provides support to the exterior brick wythe, a flashing on top of the angle intercepts water in the cavity. •  The angle itself is not sufficiently water?ght around its back and at its ends to act as a flashing on its own. The flashing also protects the angle from exposure to water and corrosion. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. DETAILNG MASONRY WALLS Flashings and Drainage: Flashing Loca?ons •  A flashing at the base of the wall intercepts water in the cavity. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. DETAILNG MASONRY WALLS Flashings and Drainage: Flashing Loca?ons •  Flashings are also used in composite walls, to intercept water that infiltrates the wall. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. DETAILNG MASONRY WALLS Flashings and Drainage: Flashing Details •  The backs of flashings are turned up to direct captured water toward the exterior of the wall. •  Flashing ends are turned up and folded to form end dams which prevent water from spilling off the ends of the flashing into the cavity. •  Flashings under windows and doors are ohen called sill pans. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. DETAILNG MASONRY WALLS Flashings and Drainage: Flashing Details Best prac?ce: • Flashings should project beyond the face of the wall at least ¾ ­inch and angle downward, so that water intercepted by the flashing falls free of the wall and does not cling to the underside of the flashing and seep back into the wall. • The exposed, projec?ng end of the flashing must be metal. Membranes and composite materials are not s?ff enough and many degrade under exposure to sun light. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. DETAILNG MASONRY WALLS Flashings and Drainage: Weeps •  A short length of rope has been inserted into the head joint between masonry units to form a weep. •  In some cases, the rope will remain in the joint aher the wall is completed, ac?ng as a wick to draw water pooled on the flashing out of the cavity. •  In other cases, the rope is removed aher the mortar has hardened, leaving a small opening. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. DETAILNG MASONRY WALLS Flashings and Drainage: Weeps •  Weeps formed with a small ­ diameter plas?c tube (above) and a pre ­formed plas?c insert (below) •  Also below, the bituminous flashing membrane is creeping out from between the masonry bed joint. A be[er prac?ce is to finish flashings with s?ff metal edges that can protrude neatly from the wall (above). Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. DETAILNG MASONRY WALLS Thermal Insula?on •  Rigid foam, part of an Exterior Insula?on and Finish System (EIFS), can be applied to the exterior side of a masonry wall. •  With exterior insula?on, the thermal mass of the masonry is coupled to the interior condi?oned environment, and can contribute to energy savings in some circumstances. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. DETAILNG MASONRY WALLS Thermal Insula?on •  Rigid foam insula?on can be inserted into the masonry wall cavity. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. DETAILNG MASONRY WALLS Thermal Insula?on •  CMU cores can be insulated with loose granular insula?on or rigid foam inserts. •  The effec?veness of insula?on in CMU cores is limited by thermal bridging of the solid por?ons of the CMUs, and by the absence of insula?on in cells where reinforcing and grou?ng is required. •  BoQom: Proprietary CMUs with special foam inserts can improve energy efficiency by reducing thermal bridging. CMU=Concrete Masonry Unit Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. DETAILNG MASONRY WALLS Thermal Insula?on •  A variety of types of insula?on can be applied to the inner side of the wall. •  BoQom: Rigid foam boards being fastened to the interior side of a CMU wall using a proprietary furring system Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. 10 Masonry Wall Construction SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Expansion and Contrac?on •  Masonry construc?on expands and contracts due to changes in temperature, moisture content, and structural loading. •  Joints must be provided to allow movement to occur without causing unsightly or detrimental cracking: –  Where changes in geometry create stress concentra?ons (right) –  Close to corners –  At intervals no greater than 125' in straight walls –  At changes in support condi?ons Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Expansion and Contrac?on •  Joints are sealed at the surface of the wall, for appearance considera?ons and to prevent the uncontrolled passage of air and water. •  Some joint designs restrict out ­of ­plane movement between adjacent wall sec?ons while permipng expansion and contrac?on in the plane of the wall. “tongue and groove” Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Expansion and Contrac?on •  Ver?cal expansion joints in brick veneer on either side of stacked window openings •  A flexible sealant material that can expand and contract with movement is applied to the joint. •  Sealant color can be chosen to match that of the mortar and sand can be cast into the surface of the sealant before it cures, to imitate the appearance of a mortar joint. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Expansion and Contrac?on •  Brick expands slightly over ?me as it absorbs moisture from the atmosphere. •  Many structural systems, especially those of concrete, shrink slightly over ?me due to long term effects of structural loads. •  On mul?story buildings, horizontal expansion joints must be provided in brick veneer to allow gradual expansion of the brick. •  If these joints are omi[ed, the veneer will gradually become compressed, bow outward, and eventually fail. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Expansion and Contrac?on •  The thin, horizontal white lines are expansion joints in the brick veneer located approximately level with the floor structure behind from which the veneer is supported. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Expansion and Contrac?on •  A close ­up of one of the expansion joints in the last image •  Note the weep hole. •  This joint does not follow best prac?ces: –  The internal flashing does not project beyond the face of the wall. –  The joint is not wide enough to accommodate significant movement in the veneer without risking failure of the sealant joint or overstressing of the veneer. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Expansion and Contrac?on •  Horizontal and ver?cal expansion joints are provided where changes in the suppor?ng structure are likely to cause differen?al movements in the veneer. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Efflorescence •  White crystalline deposits occur on the surface of masonry when moisture within carries salts from the mortar or masonry units to the surface and then evaporates, leaving the salts behind. •  Efflorescence is most common with new masonry and usually decreases over ?me. •  It can be minimized by avoiding contaminants in the masonry ingredients, and by keeping water out of the wall both during and aher construc?on. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Mortar Joint DeterioraDon •  Water and freeze/thaw ac?on deteriorate mortar joints over ?me. •  RepoinDng: Deteriorated mortar is cut out and the joints are refinished with fresh mortar. •  Care must be exercised that the new mortar is not harder or more bri[le than the mortar in the remainder of the joint, or early mortar failure or damage to the bricks themselves can result. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Cold and Hot Weather Construc?on •  Mortar must not freeze while it is curing: –  Keep materials dry. –  Preheat materials. –  Protect construc?on from weather and wind. –  Use cement types that cure rapidly and generate more heat while curing. –  Provide temporary space hea?ng. •  In especially hot weather, mortar should be protected from water loss: –  Keep mortar in shade to prevent rapid water evapora?on. –  Pre ­wet masonry units to prevent excessive water absorp?on. Fundamentals of Building Construc?on, Materials & Methods, 5th Edi?on Copyright © 2009 J. Iano. All rights reserved. Reading Assignment: Chapter 10 Page 377 ­409 Masonry Walls • Types of Masonry Walls • Spanning Systems • Detailing • Building Codes ...
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