lecture6 fall08 given

lecture6 fall08 given - Lecture 6 Organic Chemistry I Prof....

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Organic Chemistry I 310/318M Pre-Health Professionals Unique numbers: 54410, 54435, 54440, 54445, and 54655 Prof. Jonathan L. Sessler Lecture 6 Notes: 1st homework due at the start of class today. 2nd homework (on Blackboard) due in one week! Wel 2.308 -- New room for Monday 11 am recitation TIPS tutoring every Monday 7-9 pm
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Atomic Orbitals of Hydrogen Review 1s and 2s orbitals • Used as model for all atoms • Atomic orbitals have characteristic shapes • In an artist’s rendition of an atomic orbital, a surface is drawn which contains most of the probability (e.g., ~90%) of finding the electron at a given time . •Nodes in the orbitals (3-dimensional wave) are points or planes of zero probability of finding the electron. •The simplest atomic orbitals are spherical in shape and are called s orbitals. The lowest energy s orbital is the 1s orbital (left, A & B). The next highest in energy is the 2s orbital (right, A & B).
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Atomic Hydrogen 2p Orbitals •Next highest in energy after 1s and 2s. Notice node and mathematical change in sign. •Like rope or telephone cord. No positive or negative rope just designation = symmetry •3 degenerate (equal in energy) orbitals
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Other Atomic Orbitals • Following the 1s, 2s, and 2p orbitals are the 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, etc. orbitals. • Organic chemistry deals primarily with the lower s and p orbitals (e.g., 1s for H; 2s and 2p for carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen).
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Rules for Filling Orbitals: Atoms > H Holds for atomic and molecular orbitals for 2 nd row atoms (like C, N, & O), as well as most chemical species. Some exceptions with really heavy atoms. 1. Aufbau principle: Fill up from low energy to high like seats in a stadium. 2. Pauli Exclusion: Fill up 2e - per orbital (atomic or molecular). Only opposite spin in same orbital. 3. Hund’s rule: Don’t pair e - unless necessary. Fill 1e - each before pairing.
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Molecular Orbital Theory • MO theory begins with the hypothesis that electrons in atoms exist in atomic orbitals and electrons in molecules exist in molecular orbitals. • Our job is to figure out how the waves (orbitals) in question
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This note was uploaded on 03/23/2010 for the course CH 54410 taught by Professor Sessler during the Spring '10 term at University of Texas.

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lecture6 fall08 given - Lecture 6 Organic Chemistry I Prof....

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