Psychology Terms

Psychology Terms - Psychology Terms: Neurotransmitters are...

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Psychology Terms: Neurotransmitters are chemicals found in the central nervous system that transmit impulses between neurons and other cells allowing cells to communicate with one another. Serotonin: is a neurotransmitter that impacts multiple functions of the central nervous system including mood, sleep, vomiting, sexuality, and appetite. Serotonin may also promote cell regeneration. Anti-Depressants such as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) increase the levels of available Serotonin in the central nervous system. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that regulates mood stability. Variations in the levels of this chemical can produce depression and mania. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter (or chemical in the brain) that either increases or reduces the activity of neurons (nerve cells). - Dopamine has a variety of influences on brain function, including playing a role in regulating attention, cognition, movement, pleasure, and hormonal processes. Parkinson’s disease, attention deficit disorder, and schizophrenia all involve abnormalities in the dopamine system. Norepinephrine is both a neurotransmitter and a hormone. As a hormone, norepinephrine is released by the adrenal gland as part of the "fight-or-flight" response, resulting in increased heart rate and blood pressure. As a neurotransmitter, norepinephrine relays brain impulses from one cell to the next and is involved in arousal, attention and mood. Endorphins are often called the body's natural pain relievers. Endorphins are biochemical substances made by the body that reduce pain and bring about a feeling of euphoria and well-being. “runners high” The Somatic Nervous System: primary function is to regulate the actions of the skeletal muscles. Often thought of as mediating voluntary activity. Autonomic Nervous System: regulates primarily involuntary activity such as heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, and digestion The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is responsible for the fight-or-flight response, which activates breathing, blood flow, and other bodily processes to prepare you for action. The parasympathetic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system combined form the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for inhibiting or opposing the effects of the sympathetic nervous system. The Sympathetic Nervous System controls what has been called the "Fight or Flight" phenomenon because of its control over the necessary bodily changes needed when we are faced with a situation where we may need to defend ourselves or escape. Imagine walking down a dark street at night by yourself. Suddenly you hear what you suspect are footsteps approaching you rapidly. What happens?
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Your Sympathetic Nervous System kicks in to prepare your body: your heart rate quickens to get more blood to the muscles, your breathing becomes faster and deeper to increase your oxygen, blood flow is diverted from the organs so digestion is reduced and the skin gets cold and clammy and rerouted
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Psychology Terms - Psychology Terms: Neurotransmitters are...

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