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LPG by Deniz - EGEUNIVERSITY 05068049DenizMUTLU...

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EGE UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Che220 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN I LPG PRODUCT İ ON AND STORAGE Preparated by group XIII: 05 06 8049 Deniz MUTLU 05 06 8081 Zeynep AKGÜN 05 06 8083 Ba ş ar YILMAZ 05 06 8050 Süheyl SÜMBÜLTEPE Submitted to: Prof. Dr. Firuz Balkan May 2009 Bornova, IZMIR
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i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... ii 2.0 Summary ........................................................................................................................... ii 3.0 Aim ...................................................................................................................................... 1 4.0 Why LPG? .......................................................................................................................... 1 5.0 Field of use LPG …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..3 5.1 As motor fuel ........................................................................................................... 3 5.2 As refrigerant ........................................................................................................... 3 5.2.1 In motor vehicles ............................................................................................ 4 5.3 As cooking fuel ........................................................................................................ 4 5.4 Comparison to natural gas ...................................................................................... 5 6.0 Discussion ........................................................................................................................ 5 7.0 Nomenclature .................................................................................................................. 7 8.0 References ....................................................................................................................... 8 9.0 Appendix .......................................................................................................................... 10 9.1 Appendix A ............................................................................................................. 10 9.2 Appendix B ............................................................................................................. 17
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ii 1.0 Introduction Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, GPL, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. Varieties of LPG bought and sold include mixes that are primarily propane, mixes that are primarily butane, and the more common, mixes including both propane (60%) and butane (40%), depending on the season—in winter more propane, in summer more butane. Propylene and butylenes are usually also present in small concentration. A powerful odorant, ethanethiol, is added so that leaks can be detected easily. LPG is synthesised by refining petroleum or 'wet' natural gas, and is usually derived from fossil fuel sources, being manufactured during the refining of crude oil, or extracted from oil or gas streams as they emerge from the ground. It was first produced in 1910 by Dr. Walter Snelling, and the first commercial products appeared in 1912. It currently provides about 3% of the energy consumed, and burns cleanly with no soot and very few sulfur emissions, posing no ground or water pollution hazards.However, its energy density per unit volume is lower than either petrol or diesel. At normal temperatures and pressures, LPG will evaporate. Because of this, LPG is supplied in pressurised steel bottles. In order to allow for thermal expansion of the contained liquid, these bottles are not filled completely; typically, they are filled to between 80% and 85% of their capacity. The ratio between the volumes of the vaporised gas and the liquefied gas varies depending on composition, pressure and temperature, but is typically around 250:1. The pressure at which LPG becomes liquid, called its vapour pressure, likewise varies depending on composition and temperature; LPG is heavier than air, and thus will flow along floors and tend to settle in low spots, such as basements. This can cause ignition or suffocation hazards if not dealt with. Large amounts of LPG can be stored in bulk tanks and can be buried underground if required. Alternatively, gas cylinders can be used.
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