CHICAGO Style Citation Guide
Chicago Style is used for academic writing in history, and some humanities courses, and requires both endnotes
and a bibliography.
The examples below are for a bibliography with some examples for endnotes. Most citations
include three key elements: (1) author’s name, (2) title or source, and (3) publication information.
Follow elements with a period and one space.
Additional elements such as number of volumes, edition numbers, or Web address may be required.
For the bibliography, the first line of each citation starts at the left margin; indent 5 spaces before the second
and any succeeding lines. List each source separately and arrange alphabetically by the author's last name
(use the title if there is no author).
For endnotes, the first line is indented five spaces.
The note number is not raised, and it is followed by a
Author's names are not inverted, but use the last name only to refer to an earlier note by the same
An example of a note is included for one source in each section below.
Refer to the latest edition of the
Chicago Manual of Style
and/or the Chicago Style Web site
) about Electronic reference formats.
ANATOMY OF A CHICAGO CITATION
Place of publication
Below is a citation for a book with an editor.
Consult the title page and the back of the title page for citation
Other types of materials require different elements, such as article title and issue date for
periodicals; and URL and date of access for anything accessed on the Web.
Follow the examples in this guide to
format citations according to the type of information you are citing.
Date of publication
Grossman, John, ed.
The Chicago Manual of Style
. 15th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.
Title in italics
Include if 2
By a single author:
Moran, Theodore H.
Beyond Sweatshops: Foreign Direct Investment and Globalization in
Washington, D.C.: Brookings, 2002.
Foreign Direct Investment and
Globalization in Developing Countries
(Washington, D.C.: Brookings, 2000), 24-25.
Christianse, John B., and Irene W. Leigh.
Cochlear Implants in Children:
Gallaudet UP, 2002.
John B. Christianse and Irene W. Leigh, Cochlear Implants in Children:
Choices (Washington, D.C.:
Gallaudet UP, 2002), 45-46.
Venolia, Jean P., Georgio Cordini, and Joseph Hitchcock.
What Makes a Literary
Chicago: Hudson, 1995.
Four or more authors
Sechzer, J.A., S.M. Pfaffilin, F.L. Denmark, A. Griffin, and S.J. Blumenthal, eds. 1996.
Women and Mental Health