BIOLOGY MIDTERM (WINTER 2010) (PART 1)

BIOLOGY MIDTERM - BIOLOGY MIDTERM WINTER 2010 Chapter 2 and 13 AASEFA SHAIKH = answer to learning objectives CELLS AND CELL THEORY(PART ONE Two

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
BIOLOGY MIDTERM- WINTER 2010 AASEFA SHAIKH Chapter 2 and 13- = answer to learning objectives CELLS AND CELL THEORY (PART ONE) Two major unifying concepts of biology Theory of Evolution by natural selection Cell Theory traits change over time (pattern) ppl with certain heritable traits have more offspring then others w/out the traits (mechanism) All spp. are related by descent from a common ancestor and all spp. descend from other pre- existing spp. all organism made up of cells (pattern) all cells come from pre-existing cells (mechanism) all single cell organisms in 1 population are related to 1 common ancestor and all cells in a multi-cellular organism descend from 1 ancestral cell Cells- Organisms Single celled Multi-cellular - Bacteria - Archaea - Amoeba - Paramecia - Some algae - Yeast(some type of fungi) - Plants - Animals - Some algae - Some fungi - All cells have: 1. Ribosomes protein production 2. Plasma membrane 3. Chromosomes - Mitochondria “power house”- makes ATP E. Coli- prokaryotes don’t have mitochondria bc its too big to fit into the cell The information system of the cell DNA RNA PROTEIN 1. Info stored in DNA 2. Info in DNA copied into RNA 3. Info in RNA guides production of protein - All cells share an info system - Blue-print/ long-term storage in DNA - RNA makes proteins e.g.: - DNA= grandma’s cookbook - Genes= recipes - Transcription= transferring recipe onto recipe card - Recipe card= messenger (mRNA) Sequence for a gene is copied form DNA to an mRNA - Some cells are organisms while other organisms are made up of many cells
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Translation = turning words into physical item Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) - Series of 5 deoxy-ribose sugar that is connected to nitrogenous bases and a phosphate group - A, C purines (2 rings) T, G pyridines - Complimentary base pairing A-T C-G - If you have 2 pyrines or 2 pyridines then - DNA has a direction- you read it in a particular way (paired in opposite direction 5’ -3’) - In RNA no T, there is U (uracil) which is a ribose sugar Proteins being made by each ribosome - Different types of RNA 1. mRNA- messenger RNA gene transcript made by transcription 2. tRNA- transfer RNA used in making proteins in transition bring amino acids to the ribosome 3. rRNA- ribosomal RNA found in ribosomes (w/ ribosomal proteins) ** To make proteins you need all the types of RNA Transcription and translation - prokaryotes (e.g. bacteria, archaea) no nucleus transcription and translation can occur at the same time prokaryotes can begin translation even as mRNA is being transcribed prokaryotes are 10 folds smaller than eukaryotes but DNA and ribosomes are of similar size - eukaryotes nucleus present translation occurs after transcription has finished (both don’t occur at the same time) eukaryotes can begin translation only after mRNA is exported from the nucleus transcription and translation is similar in plants, animals, and fungi
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 03/24/2010 for the course BIOLOGY biol101 taught by Professor Tanyanoel during the Winter '09 term at York University.

Page1 / 13

BIOLOGY MIDTERM - BIOLOGY MIDTERM WINTER 2010 Chapter 2 and 13 AASEFA SHAIKH = answer to learning objectives CELLS AND CELL THEORY(PART ONE Two

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online