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CRISIS INTERVENTIONGoals of Crisis Intervention●Any stressful situation can precipitate a crisis●Assistance with problem-solving during the crisis period of:○Preserves self-esteem○Promotes growth with resolutionCrisis, Defined●Crisis is defined as a sudden event in one’s life that disturbs homeostasis, during which usual coping mechanisms cannot resolve the problem.●Usual coping methods do not work●Pg. 238Characteristics of a Crisis●Crisis occurs in all individuals at one time or another and is not necessarily equated with psychopathology●Crises are precipitated by specific identifiable events.●Crises are personal by nature.●Crises are acute, not chronic, and are resolved in one way or another within a brief period.●A crisis situation contains the potential for psychological growth or deterioration.Phases in the Development of a Crisis●1. The individual is exposed to a precipitating stressor.●2. When previous problem-solving techniques do not relieve the stressor, anxiety increases further.●3. All possible resources, both internal and external, are called on to resolve the problem and relieve the discomfort.●4. If resolution has not occurred in previous phases, the tension mounts beyond a further threshold or its burden increases over time to a breaking point. Major disorganization of the individual with drastic results often occurs.Three Factors that Influence the Relationship Between Stress and Crisis●Whether individuals experience a crisis in response to a stressful situation depends on three factors:○The individual’s perception of the event○The availability of situational supports○The availability of adequate coping mechanismsTypes of Crises**●Dispositional crises – an acute response to an external situational stressor●Crises of anticipated life transitions – normal life-cycle transitions that may be anticipated but over which the individual may feel a lack of control●Crises resulting from traumatic stress –a crisis that is precipitated by an unexpected, external stressor over which the individual has little or no control and from which he or she feel emotionally overwhelmed and defeated○Example: Hurricane Katrina●Maturational/developmental crises– crises that occur in response to situations that trigger emotions related to unresolved conflicts in one’s life●Crises reflecting psychopathology – emotional crises in which preexisting psychopathology has been instrumental in precipitating the crisis or in which psychopathology significantly impairs or complicates adaptive resolution○Borderline Personality Disorder●Psychiatric emergencies – crisis situations in which general functioning has been severely impaired and the individual rendered incompetent or unable to assume personal responsibility○So impaired they cannot functionCrisis Intervention●The minimum therapeutic goal of crisis intervention is psychological resolution of the individual’s immediate crisis and restoration to at least the level of functioningthat existed before the crisis period.