Session 14 (Eukaryote Genome and Expression)

Session 14 (Eukaryote Genome and Expression) - MCB 181...

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MCB 181 Study Session 14 (Eukaryote Genome and Expression)
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Learning Goals for Study Session 14 (Eukaryote Genome and Expression) Be able to describe the major characteristics of the eukaryotic genome that distinguish it from the genome of prokaryotes. Briefly define the terms genomics, functional genomics and structural genomics and describe the surprising features of the human genome as compared to other eukaryotes. Describe the processing steps that occur in the conversion of a eukaryote RNA transcript to mRNA and be able to define terms such as exon, intron, G cap, poly A tail, and spliceosome. Be able to describe what is meant by chromatin remodeling and the role it plays in regulation of gene expression. Briefly define the terms transcription factor and indicate the role of protein-DNA interaction in gene expression. Describe how eukaryotes can control the expression of groups of genes that are in different location in the genome. Distinguish between a gene family and a pseudogene. Be able to describe how eukaryotic gene expression might be altered after transcription and translation.
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Eukaryotes have large genomes, but only a subset of genes are expressed at any time or in a given cell! Eukaryotes, like prokaryotes need to regulate the expression of genes in response to the environment and, for multicellular eukaryotes, during development. The human genome has about 25,000 genes, more than five times the number in a typical bacterium. Managing so much DNA requires elaborate organization and mechanisms for regulating gene expression. In this study session we consider the organization of the eukaryote genome and the mechanisms available for controlling when and where genes are expressed.
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The Eukaryotic Genome A genome is the complete complement of an organism’s genes; all the genes in an organism’s haploid set of chromosomes. Eukaryotic genomes compared to those of prokaryotes are larger, consist of multiple chromosomes, have more of the DNA involved in regulating gene expression and a surprisingly large amount of the eukaryotic DNA consists of repetitive nucleotide sequences of uncertain function. Genomics is the study of whole sets of genes and their interactions. Determining the nucleotide sequence of an organisms genome is fundamental to genomics. Functional genomics refers to the assignment of function to genes in the genome. In comparative genomics , scientists compare genome sequences of different organisms to determine which genes they have in common. Information from functional and comparative genomics is used to develop hypotheses ranging from how organisms have adapted to their environment to evolutionary relationships among species.
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Some results from comparative genomics! The genome of
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This note was uploaded on 03/24/2010 for the course MCB 181 taught by Professor Jorstad during the Spring '07 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.

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Session 14 (Eukaryote Genome and Expression) - MCB 181...

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