Session 2b (Organic Chemistry)

Session 2b (Organic Chemistry) - MCB 181 Study Session 2b...

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Unformatted text preview: MCB 181 Study Session 2b (Organic Chemistry) Learning Goals for Study Session 2b (Organic Chemistry) Be able to explain why carbon atoms are uniquely suited to form the diverse organic molecules found in cells. Define the term isomer and describe the differences among structural, geometric and optical isomers. Be able to recognize the various functional groups and describe their major properties and functions when part of organic molecules. Define the term reversible reaction and indicate its relevance to a molecules ability to act as a buffer against changes in pH. Distinguish between strong and weak acids and bases. Water is the universal medium for life on Earth, but the structure of most of the chemicals in living organisms is based on the element carbon. Carbon atoms are uniquely suited to form a vast array of large and complex molecules. Compounds composed of carbon are referred to as organic and the branch of chemistry that deals with carbon containing compounds is organic chemistry . Many of you will take an entire course in organic chemistry. The purpose of this study session is to introduce you to typical structures found in those organic compounds that are particularly significant for living organisms. Carbon atoms are the most versatile building blocks of cellular chemicals! Recall from Study Session 2a that the configuration of electrons in the outer energy shell determines the kinds and number of bonds an atom will form with other atoms. Because carbon has just 4 electrons in an outer shell that can hold 8, carbon usually shares electrons with other atoms to fill its outer shell. Carbon atoms can readily bond with elements such as S, P, O, N and H to form a wide variety of complex molecules. Each carbon atom forms four covalent bonds! In organic compounds, each carbon atom forms 4 covalent bonds with neighboring atoms to produce a vast array of chemical structures....
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Session 2b (Organic Chemistry) - MCB 181 Study Session 2b...

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