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Exam 3 OutlinesChapter 13: Crisis Intervention VIV●Crisis- a sudden event in one’s life that disturbs homeostasis during which usual coping mechanisms cannot resolve the problem○Any stressful situation can precipitate a crisis; Crisis results in a disequilibrium●Crisis intervention- requires problem solving skills that are often diminished by the levels of anxiety accompanying disequilibrium ○Assistance with problem solving during a crisis preserves self esteem and promotes growth with resolutionCHARACTERISTICS OF A CRISIS●1. Crisis occurs in all individuals and is not necessarily equated with psychopathology●2. Crises are precipitated by specific identifiable events●3. Crises are personal by nature○Meaning what may be considered a crisis situation by one individual may not be so for another●4. Crises are acute, not chronic, and will be resolved within a brief period●5. A crisis situation contains the potential for psychological growth or deterioration●Individuals who are in crisis feel helpless to change○They don’t believe they have the resources to deal with the stressor●Levels of anxiety rise to the point that the individual becomes nonfunctional, thoughts become obsessional, and all behavior is aimed at relieving the anxiety○The feeling is so overwhelming it affects the individual physically and psychologically●Random chinese quote shit: chinese symbol for crisis consists of the characters for danger and opportunity. ○Opportunity to grow by resolving issue and move towards change○Danger if experience is overwhelming and cannot make necessary changes → maladaptive coping behaviorPHASES IN THE DEVELOPMENTAL CRISIS●Crisis development follows a relatively predictable course:○Phase 1: The individual is exposed to a precipitating stressor■Anxiety increases■Previous problem-solving techniques are employed○Phase 2: Previous problem-solving techniques do NOT relieve the stressor■Anxiety increases further■Begin to feel discomfort■Coping techniques that have worked before fail so feelings of helplessness occur■Feelings of confusion and disorganization prevail○Phase 3: All possible resources (internal and external) are called on the resolve the problem and relieve the discomfort■May try to view the problem from a different perspective■Resolution may occur at this phase ●the individual may return to a higher, lower, or previous level of premorbid functioning○Phase 4: If no resolution in previous phases: tension mounds beyond a further threshold/its burden increases over time to a breaking point. ■Major disorganization of the individual with drastic results often occurs ■Anxiety may reach panic level■Cognitive functions are disordered, emotions change easily, and behavior may reflect psychotic thinking.